The Falklands are located in the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly on the islands of Great Malvinas and Soleto.
in April 1982, in order to fight for the ownership of the Malvinas Islands, Britain and Argentina broke out the largest and most intense joint sea, land and air operations during the Cold War. The reasons that prompted Britain and Afghanistan to fight each other gradually surfaced after the war. Who touched the "cheese" of the Falklands?
the Falklands are located in the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly the islands of Greater Malvinas and Soleto. Port Stanley, the capital of the Falklands, has a population of about 2000, most of whom are descendants of British immigrants. The archipelago consists of 346 islands with a total area of about 13000 square kilometers, about 500km from Argentina and 13000 km from the United Kingdom.
in 1592, the British explorer John Davis led the Hope expedition ship to discover the Falklands. In 1598, the Dutchman Sebard Defert became the first sailor to land on the Falklands. In 1690, British Captain John strong marked the location of the Falkland Islands on the map and called the Strait between the two main islands the "Falkland Channel". Therefore, Britain called the Falkland Islands.
since then, the Falklands have changed hands between Britain, France and Spain. In 1816, after Argentina became independent, it announced that it would inherit the Spanish colonial heritage, including the Falklands. In 1833, the Falklands dispute arose when Britain sent troops to seize the Falklands and expel the Argentine residents on the islands. Throughout history, the Falklands are like an ultra-long standby bomb, dragging Britain and Afghanistan into the abyss of war at any time.
the most obvious advantage of Falklands lies in its geographical location. It is located at the southern tip of the South Atlantic Ocean, only 450 nautical miles from the eastern end of the Strait of Magellan, the southernmost tip of South America. Before the opening of the Panama Canal, the Falklands were the only way for ocean-going ships to navigate the Strait of Magellan or Cape Horn. In the maritime world, it is called "the key to the Pacific Ocean". In 1914, the Panama Canal was put into operation. The Falklands remain the military outpost of the South Atlantic and the South American continent. During the two world wars, the British navy, relying on the natural harbor of the Falklands, defeated the provocative German navy several times. After World War II, there was a craze for Antarctic exploration around the world, and ships from all over the world gathered on the Falklands, where they entered the controllable South Pole and transferred goods and materials, which became the key base to get their hands on the South Pole.
in the 1980s, supertankers with a deadweight of more than 160000 tons had to bypass traditional routes because they were unable to pass through the Panama Canal and Suez Canal, and the Falklands became an indispensable node in the global oil transportation route. From a geopolitical point of view, once the Panama Canal is suspended, the Falklands immediately highlight the potential value of choking the two-ocean passage. It can be said that whoever controls the Falklands will control the "gateway to the South Atlantic". Britain and Argentina know this very well.
Black gold temptation has a stake
Britain and Arab countries are both concerned about the visible Falklands and staring at the invisible oil. In the 1970s, geological exploration showed that the continental shelf near the Falklands contained huge amounts of oil and natural gas, only the local undersea oil resources could reach up to 60 billion barrels, equivalent to the total reserves of Britain's North Sea oilfields. Because the oil price was too low and the development cost was too high at that time, this "treasure trove" was not taken seriously.
things have changed. In 1973 and 1979, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries planned two "oil crises", which led to fluctuations in oil prices, while the increase in global oil demand pushed up oil prices. Countries around the world speed up the exploration, development and control of offshore oil and gas data. According to expert estimates, the marine oil and gas resources account for 70% of the world's total reserves.
stimulated by the crisis and interests, the Falklands have attracted the attention of Britain and Afghanistan. Once the local oil and gas resources are developed, it will ensure an adequate energy supply for the UK over the next 25 years. In 1973, a British MP stressed: "Britain can lose five Northern Ireland, but must not lose one Falkland Islands." This is evident in Britain's eagerness to develop the Falklands.
as far as Argentina is concerned, the Falklands are its "century-old pain". Geographical location is self-evident, and it is also related to national emotion, national security, diplomatic strategy and energy security. In the 1970s, Britain and Afghanistan held many diplomatic negotiations on the Falklands issue. In 1981, the British Parliament called for a "freeze" of negotiations on the ownership of the Falklands.
seeing the hopelessness of negotiations and losing the patience to recapture the Falklands by peaceful means, Argentina is determined to take "other means", including military action, and hopes to eradicate the "humiliation of the division of territory" over the past 149 years. Driven by interests and national feelings, the confrontation between Britain and Afghanistan extends from the negotiating table to the military field.
the hard-line stance of Britain and Afghanistan is one of the main factors leading to the war. In 1981, a serious economic crisis occurred in Argentina. In that year, the national GDP was 78.677 billion US dollars, down 11.4 percent from the previous year, and the foreign debt reached 34 billion US dollars, accounting for 43.21 percent of GDP. The inflation rate has risen to 600%, and the unemployment rate is close to 30%. Economic weakness has had a serious impact on Argentina's social stability.
at this time, Leopoldo Galtieri, who was born in the army, was elected president of Argentina. He believes that the meetings of the non-aligned Movement and American countries have repeatedly expressed support for Argentina's recovery of sovereignty over the Falklands, occupying the commanding heights of public opinion. After World War II, Britain was extremely weak, not only "reducing the construction of the navy," but also "reducing the defense force of the Falklands." more importantly, a war can divert the increasingly fierce contradictions in the country, rally the hearts of the people, and consolidate its position.
therefore, Galtieri made the decision of "seizing the Falklands by force". On April 2, 1982, Argentina launched a military operation codenamed "Rosario". Hundreds of British soldiers were taken by surprise and surrendered after symbolic resistance. Argentina then announced to the world that it had regained the sovereignty of the Falklands.
however, the powerful Galtieri metThe iron-handed Mrs. Thatcher. When the news of the occupation of the Falklands came back to Britain, there was a mixture of fire and ice in politics and among the people. Because the supply line is too long, the British Ministry of Defense has come to the conclusion that "once the Falkland Islands are occupied, they cannot be retaken." Considering the lack of national strength, most cabinet members have a negative attitude towards the war. In contrast, the Daily Mail used the word "shame" on its front page to convey its dissatisfaction with the loss of the Falklands, and people also gathered in front of 10 Downing Street to protest.
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Cabinet head Margaret Thatcher strongly rejected public opinion, believing that the Falklands are related to Britain's strategic interests, that it should be fought at all costs, and that the hearts and minds of the people are available, and that it is a good time to rebuild Britain's self-confidence and international image. She used "support me" in parliament. The slogan "to support me is to support Britain" has won the support of Parliament.
on April 3, Mrs. Thatcher formed the wartime Cabinet and announced: "the United Kingdom will go on an expedition to recover the lost territory of the South Atlantic." The "Iron Lady" stipulated that British military operations were limited to the Falklands and limited maritime restricted areas, and did not involve the Argentine homeland. In addition, within two days, he concentrated the strength of the British navy 2Mab 3 to form a task force and appointed John Woodward as commander of the fleet. The struggle between the "old honors" and the "upstart" has spread from politics to the military, the state machine has been in operation, and war is inevitable.
it took 74 days and Britain spent $2.7 billion to reoccupy the Falklands at the cost of 258 people killed and 775 injured. After Argentina's defeat, Galtieri fell, and the court sentenced him to 12 years in prison on charges of "command error". Margaret Thatcher was widely praised by British society and achieved an unshakable political status. Although the war is over, Britain and Afghanistan will still play games around the sovereignty of the Falklands, geopolitics, energy security and other fields, and a new war has already begun.