In addition to Germany putting missile weapons into actual combat during World War II, Axis Japan and the United States and Britain of the allies also developed missiles during World War II.
World War II is the largest war in the history of mankind, and it is also an important period for the rapid development of human military science and technology. During this period, jet fighters, missiles, atomic bombs and other new weapons have been put into the battlefield one after another, which has had a far-reaching impact on the development of military science and technology and the reform of war forms in the postwar world. In particular, the birth of missile weapons inspired the arms race between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, for more than 40 years after the war.
in the summer of 1944 at the end of World War II, Germany first put V1 and V2 missiles into combat. In addition to V1 and V2 missiles, the Germans also put Fritz X anti-ship missiles into actual combat. Fritz X sank the Italian navy USS Romar. In addition, the German army has also successfully developed surface-to-air missiles such as Fire Lily, Waterfall, and Rhine daughter, Little Red Riding Hood anti-tank missile, X4 air-to-air missile, and other weapons, and the research and development of these missile weapons have had a great impact on the development of missiles after the war.
however, little is known about the fact that apart from Germany putting missile weapons into actual combat during World War II, Axis Japan and the United States and Britain of the allies also developed missiles during World War II. Although their missiles have not been put into actual combat, the research and development of these missile weapons has a far-reaching impact on the development of missile weapons in the corresponding countries after the war.
British missile weapons
during World War II, the British mainland suffered from German V1 and V2 missiles, but Britain also had its own missile weapons. It started even earlier than German missiles, and there are many kinds of them. This is represented by the BM surface-to-air missile jointly developed by the British Air Defense Command and the British Corso Co., Ltd.
the missile program originated in 1943. Coincidentally, two plans for the development of anti-aircraft missiles were submitted to the RAF Air Defense Command. The first is the "radio air defense rocket" designed by the Royal Mechanical and Electrical Corps. The other is Corso's "radar beam-controlled bomb targeting aircraft targets."
both military agencies and private companies have their own air defense missile development plans, which makes it difficult for the RAF Air Defense Command. In the end, the Air Defense Command decided that the army and the people would jointly develop surface-to-air missiles.
in February 1944, drawings of BM surface-to-air missiles were drawn. This is a surface-to-air missile with four wings and four control surfaces. It is boosted by eight 3-inch rockets. The BM surface-to-air missile is a radar beam guided missile. According to Belford, the designer of the missile guidance system, in 1958, because the radar beam does not have any special coding or special instructions, the missile itself needs to translate the radar signal while flying, and then estimate the displacement error between itself and the radar beam, and then eliminate the displacement error.
after intense development, the BM surface-to-air missile successfully flew for the first time in September 1944. However, with the disintegration of the BM surface-to-air missile in the third test flight and the end of the war, the BM missile has no chance to use its talents. By the end of 1945, the BM surface-to-air missile stopped flight testing. Although the BM missile did not enter the service of the British army, the BM surface-to-air missile had a far-reaching impact on the development of British surface-to-air missile after the war.
US missile weapons
having finished talking about Britain, let's take a look at US missile weapons. As a military power, the United States is no less than Germany in missile technology. In order to defend against the attack of the Japanese kamikaze special forces, the United States has developed two types of ship-to-air missiles, the lark and the soldier. However, due to the very powerful performance of the US military's Bovers anti-aircraft artillery, skylarks and small-soldier ship-to-air missiles were not put into actual combat. However, the birth of larks and small soldiers ship-to-air missiles laid the foundation for the development of US ship-to-air missiles after the war.
in addition to skylarks and small soldier ship-to-air missiles, the US military has one missile put into actual combat. This is also the first missile in the world with "post-launch regardless of" combat capability. Its name is "bat" missile, and some people translate it into "fox bat missile". The battlefield in which the fox bat missile is used is the Pacific battlefield. At that time, the Japanese carried out more and more frequent suicide attacks on the US military. The US military decided to use Foxy air-to-ship missiles to attack Japanese suicide ships.
in sharp contrast to the German Fritz X missile and HS293 missile, the US military's fox bat missile is an active radar guided missile. It is better than German missiles in firing accuracy and distance. On April 23, 1945, the PB4Y2B sea bomber of the 109th US bomber Squadron fired two fox air-to-ship missiles at the Japanese over the waters near Indonesia. Two missiles hit the Japanese ship on the spot and sank it. The birth of the fox air-to-ship missile indicates that the anti-ship missile will become an important weapon to change the face of naval warfare.
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however, the fox bat missile is, after all, the first generation of air-to-ship missiles of the US military. It is also the first generation of anti-ship missiles that the US military has put into actual combat. Although this kind of missile has advanced technology after launch, it is vulnerable to electromagnetic interference from enemy ships. Coupled with the fact that it is difficult for missile warheads to carry high-yield TNT explosives, Foxbat missiles can only sink enemy small combat ships.
little-known Japanese missiles
during World War II, Japan, as a military power in Asia, also developed some missile weapons by relying on its own science and technology. The imaginary enemy of these missile weapons is the powerful US military. Although Japanese missiles have not been put into actual combat, their emergence has also left a special mark in the history of missile development in the world.
at the end of World War II, US military B29 strategic bombers attacked the Japanese mainland. Japanese local air defense fighters cannot fly to the altitude of the B29, and the Japanese anti-aircraft guns are even more powerless against the B29. In order to defend against the B29 air strikes, Japan urgently developed the Endeavour surface-to-air missile and put it into actual combat.
in the early days, the Fenlong-1 surface-to-air missile adopted proximity stealth signal, and the killing radius was less than 20 meters. The Japanese military industry immediately made improvements to the Endeavour surface-to-air missile. The improved Fenlong 2 surface-to-air missile adopts gyro stabilization technology, and the guidance mode is radio guidance.The power is solid rocket motor. The Enron-2 missile is loaded with 50 kilograms of explosives. According to records, at least more than 10 Enron-2 missiles have been produced and put into practice. There are also records of Endeavour II participating in the war in the US military records. However, there is no relevant information to confirm whether Endeavour 2 has ever shot down a US bomber.
in March 1945, the Japanese army developed the Endeavour-3 surface-to-air missile. The Endeavour-3 surface-to-air missile replaced its solid engine with a liquid engine because of a fuel crisis in Japan. However, Japan's missile development work has not stopped. Japan has also developed the Endeavour 4 surface-to-air missile on the basis of the Endeavour 3. The Fenlong 4 missile has been successfully tested for 10 times in a row.
in addition to surface-to-air missiles, Japan has plans for the development of ship-to-air missiles and anti-ship missiles. These are the Japanese Tianlong ship-to-air missiles and Jianlong anti-ship missiles. In 1944, Japan adopted the fifth batch of supplementary ship-building programs, which aimed to develop a number of new combat ships with missile technology. For example, the Japanese plan to turn the heavy cruiser Reagan into a missile cruiser in 1947, with two twin Tianlong ship-to-air missiles and 16 sword dragon anti-ship missiles. Japan also plans to install a stegosaurus anti-ship missile on the Iraqi 400 submarine, which may be the world's earliest submarine missile.
what is even more shocking to future generations is that Japan also plans to convert the Yamato into a missile battleship. In order to fight against US warships, the Japanese plan to dismantle the two main turrets of the Yamato and install three four-mounted sword dragon anti-ship missiles. In order to prevent air strikes by US carrier-based aircraft, the Japanese also plan to install double-mounted Tianlong ship-to-air missiles on the Yamato. However, the Japanese plan to convert Yamato into a missile cruiser was not put into practice, and the Yamato sank into the sea forever on April 16, 1945.
in order to deal with US landing ships close to the Japanese mainland, the Japanese army has also developed two types of air-to-ship missiles, I-An and I-B. The former attacks large warships such as US aircraft carriers, while the latter attacks medium-sized warships such as US landing ships. Both missiles are carried by Galaxy bombers. By the time Japan surrendered, the Japanese army had built 15 I-An and 180 I-B missiles. But these missiles have not been put into actual combat.
although little is known about the missile weapons developed by the United States, Britain, and Japan during World War II, these missile weapons have left an important mark in the history of human military development. With the opening of the Cold War era after the end of World War II, missile weapons and related technologies will spread to many countries around the world, and all kinds of missile weapons will have a far-reaching impact on the face of human war.