The fourth Middle East War was the largest local war in the Middle East during the Cold War.
the fourth Middle East War that broke out in 1973 was the largest local war that broke out in the Middle East during the Cold War. Arab countries dispatched 570000 regular troops, 4000 tanks and more than 1000 aircraft to take part in the war. Israel put in more than 100,000 regular troops, 1700 tanks and 1000 aircraft to fight the Arab coalition of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq.
then, in the face of the raid by the superior forces of the Arab coalition forces, why can small Israel turn defeat into victory?
surprise attacks from Egypt and Syria
the main front of the fourth Middle East War is divided into two lines-- the Golan Heights Front in the north and the Sinai Peninsula in the southwest. Israel's northern and southern military regions are against Syrian and Egyptian forces respectively.
Let's first take a look at the war situation in the Golan Heights. At 2 p.m. on October 6, 1973, the Syrian army concentrated more than 600 artillery and opened heavy fire on Israeli positions in the Golan Heights. Then, with the cooperation of more than 500 tanks, more than 700 infantry fighting vehicles, and more than 100 aircraft, the strength of the three divisions of the Syrian army rushed to the Israeli position. The Syrian army also sent helicopters carrying special units to attack the radar base set up by the Israeli army on Mount Hermon.
under the fierce impact of the Syrian army, the defense line of the Israeli army deployed in the Golan Heights was broken to pieces, but the 7th armored brigade and 188th armored brigade of the Israeli army rebelled with dozens of remaining tanks. Even if the commander of the 188 armored brigade was killed, the resistance of the 188 brigade did not stop. Despite the tenacious resistance of the Israeli army, the Syrian army still broke through the armistice line of the 1967 Middle East war.
the Syrian army won a small victory in the direction of the Golan Heights, while Egypt won a large victory in the direction of the Sinai Peninsula. At 2 p.m., more than 2000 Egyptian artillery fired heavily on Israeli positions on the Barlev line in Sinai Peninsula. The Egyptian Air Force dispatched more than 200 planes and violently bombed the Israeli positions east of the canal.
after the end of the fierce shelling and air raids, the 100000 Egyptian army, with the cooperation of more than 1000 tanks, launched a counterattack in two ways, with the second Egyptian Army in the north and the third Egyptian Army in the south. The two armies almost went hand in hand.
before the Egyptian army reached the Suez Canal, Egyptian engineers washed the sand embankments of the Barlev Line with water cannons and built more than 10 military pontoon bridges over the Suez Canal. 100000 Egyptian troops, more than 1000 tanks and tens of thousands of military vehicles passed through the military pontoon bridge and set foot on the land of the Sinai Peninsula.
the Israeli army was bewildered by the Egyptian raid. In order to save the defeat, the 190 armored battalion of the Israeli army launched a counterattack against the position of the 2nd infantry division of the Egyptian army. In order to deal with the tanks of the Israeli army, the officers and men of the 2nd Infantry Division of the Egyptian army destroyed most of the tanks of the Israeli army's 190th armored battalion on the spot with AT3 anti-tank missiles. The Israeli battalion commander led the remaining tanks and soldiers to surrender to the Egyptian army, and the Egyptian officers and men who won a great victory danced happily on the position.
the Egyptian army controlled the war situation in the Sinai Peninsula, and the Syrian army did its best to attack the Golan Heights defense line in the Golan Heights. Other Arab countries were encouraged to join the war. The Iraqi army dispatched more than 300 tanks and 73 aircraft to attack Israeli positions. King Hussein of Jordan announced his participation in the war, and a large number of Jordanian military vehicles delivered ammunition to the front. The armies of Algeria, Tunisia and other countries have also massed to the front. Israel once again faces the test of life and death.
Why can Israel do it when the Jedi fight back?
in the face of the absolute superiority of 4000 tanks and 570000 Arab troops, Israel quickly started its war machine, quickly reversed the war initiative, and finally won. The Israeli army turned defeat into victory for the following reasons that deserve special attention.
first, Israel shared a common hatred of the enemy and quickly mobilized the reserve forces.
Israel's reserve force is an important support for the expansion of the Israeli army in wartime. In the face of the siege of the Arab army, the mobilization of the Israeli reserves is very rapid. Within 24 hours after the start of the war, the military issued mobilization orders to the whole country through radio, television and other means of communication, and reservists stopped their work and reported to the recruitment stations one after another. Within 48 hours after the start of the war, the Israeli army's reserve armored division had gone to the front to fight. In a short period of two days, the Israeli army has expanded from 150000 before the war to 400000, and these well-trained reservists have laid a solid foundation for Israel to turn defeat into victory.
second, formulate a correct counterattack strategy and seize the enemy's weakness to launch a Jedi counterattack.
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the enemies faced by Israel are many Arab countries led by Egypt and Syria. in the eyes of senior Israeli troops, as long as they defeat Egypt and Syria, other Arab countries will automatically withdraw from the war.
however, fighting on two fronts has committed a military taboo. What should the Israeli army do in the face of the two-line attack by the Egyptian army and the Syrian army? The General staff of the Israeli Army has formulated a correct counterattack strategy: to launch a resolute counterattack against the weaker Syrian army, forcing Syria to withdraw from the war. Then counterattacked the Egyptian army in the southwest.
in the beginning of the battle, the 7th armored brigade and 188th armored brigade of the Israeli army were almost wiped out under the attack of the Syrian army. In order to make up for the defense gap, the Israeli army put the 17th, 19th, and 79th armored brigades, which were converted into active service, into the direction of the Golan Heights, quickly gaining a foothold in the position and smashing the attack of the Syrian army. Then, a large number of Israeli troops poured into the battlefield on the northern front, and the counterattack officially began on October 8. Under the fierce attack of the Israeli army, the Syrian army withdrew from the border on October 10. Israeli troops even invaded the Syrian mainland, and its artillery units began shelling the outskirts of the Syrian capital, Damascus.
of course, Israel does not want to annex Syria. After the goal of oppressing Syria to withdraw from the war was achieved, the Israeli army launched a counterattack against the Egyptian army.
the Egyptian army is strong, but it also has defects. From the attack on October 6th toThe offensive was suspended on October 9, and the Egyptian army took control of the Sinai Peninsula at a depth of 15 kilometers, wiped out three Israeli armored brigades and won a complete victory. However, the Egyptian army should not choose to suspend the attack, but should choose to take advantage of the victory to pursue. But the Egyptian army did not take advantage of the victory to chase, giving the Israeli army a chance to catch their breath. After the northern front stabilized, the Israeli army put in five divisions and more than 800 tanks to kill the Egyptian army. In order to reduce its own pressure, Syria hopes that the Egyptian tanks will face off with the Israeli army. This move is in the hands of the Israeli army. The Israeli army is eager for the Egyptian army to take the initiative to fight, because the Egyptian tank troops have long been out of the cover range of the Egyptian Sam 6 surface-to-air missiles, and if the Egyptian tanks are deployed on a large scale, the Israeli air force and tank units will be able to coordinate in the air and ground to wipe out the Egyptian tank troops.
on 14 October, more than 1000 tanks of the Egyptian army and more than 800 tanks of the Israeli army launched a tank war in the vicinity of the "Chinese Farm." After the war, the Egyptian army lost 250 tanks, while the Israeli army lost only 50 tanks.
Israel finally seized the initiative in the war. The Israeli General staff seized on the enemy's weakness, made a correct counterattack plan, and fought a beautiful Jedi counterattack.
third, intelligence support.
US reconnaissance satellites provide intelligence to the Israeli army-there is a gap between the 2nd and 3rd legions of the Egyptian army. Using this intelligence, the Israeli army sent armored divisions led by Sharon (later prime minister of Israel) to surround the 3rd army regiment of the Egyptian army. In order to preserve the 3rd Army Corps of the Egyptian Army, Egypt was forced to agree to the terms of the cease-fire of the United Nations.
on the contrary, the Soviet Union did not provide any intelligence support to Arab countries. Compared with the Soviet Union's only arms assistance to Arab countries, the United States supports Israel from intelligence to weapons.
fourth, logistical support.
shortly after the outbreak of the war, the Israeli army almost finished fighting its ammunition. In order to support Israel in smashing enemy attacks, US C5 and C141 transport planes flew 565 sorties and transported 22400 tons of military materials to the Israeli army. The United States directly painted the logo of the Israeli Air Force on the 36 F4 ghostly fighters that should have been equipped to it. The US pilot flew into Israel and went directly into the battlefield. The US military has also provided Israel with new weapons such as calf missiles and Mockingbird missiles. Without the logistical support of the United States, it will be very difficult for Israel to win the war.
Israel's turning defeat into victory in the fourth Middle East War tells us a truth: sound intelligence support, strong logistical support, rapid national defense mobilization, and correct strategies and tactics, no matter how the form of the war changes, these four points are important factors in the immutable rate of victory in the war.