Denmark, the full name of the Kingdom of Denmark, is one of the three Nordic countries
Denmark, whose full name is the Kingdom of Denmark, is one of the three Nordic countries. It faces Norway in the west, Sweden in the east, Germany in the south, and countries on all sides. Denmark has 406 islands, of which the largest and most densely populated is Sealand, which is also the location of its capital, Copenhagen. The Jutland peninsula in the south is connected to the European continent.
looking at the capitals of various countries, it is not difficult to find that many countries have built their capitals on land in order to facilitate their rule and ensure security. But Denmark built its capital, Copenhagen, on the western edge of the island of Ceylon. Why?
the evolution of the Danish ruling center
the city was founded in 1170, located in the east of Feiying Island, is also Nieburg in central Denmark, and first became the ruling center of the Danish royal family. The Danish royal family often holds meetings and meetings here. The first constitution of Denmark was signed here in the 13th century.
in the 15th century, the kingdom of Denmark moved its capital to Copenhagen. Copenhagen has been transformed from a port into Denmark's economic, political and transportation center.
History of Copenhagen
Copenhagen is located on the east coast of Sylan Island, adjacent to the Baltic Sea and the throat of the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Copenhagen is the largest city in northern Europe.
although the Kingdom of Denmark was established as early as the tenth century, there were only a few dozen towns in Denmark until the mid-13th century. Copenhagen is one of the earliest cities in Denmark.
in the eleventh century, Copenhagen was just a small fishing village, known as "Hafen", or "port", with the function of trade circulation. In the mid-12th century, King Waldemar of Denmark gave Copenhagen to the Archbishop of Abu Sarang. The archbishop built a fort here and improved the infrastructure, and Copenhagen changed from "Hafen" to "Copenhagen" (Danish "commercial port"). In the 13th century, Copenhagen developed into a commercial and fishing center. In the fifteenth century, Copenhagen was designated as the capital of Denmark.
but there have been many disturbances since the founding of Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. For example, in 1643, Denmark declared war on Sweden, and the Swedish army invaded Denmark from Jutland, resulting in Denmark's disastrous defeat. In 1658, Denmark started war again, and Sweden entered Denmark from Jutland, which was blocked by the Little Bert Strait. Later, by virtue of the frozen sea, the Swedish army passed through the Little Bert Strait and captured Copenhagen, thus occupying all of Denmark. In order not to subjugate the country, Denmark chose to sign the Copenhagen Peace Treaty and was forced to cede 1/3 of its territory.
it can be seen that Denmark, which is the capital of the island, has insufficient land defense on the Jutland Peninsula, which gives Sweden an opportunity. Crucially, Copenhagen is located on an island, and it is extremely easy to fall into isolation when war breaks out. This brings hidden dangers to the security of the whole country.
Copenhagen is located on an island, and there are so many security risks, why does the Kingdom of Denmark make Copenhagen the capital of the country?
1. Denmark is a country based on the sea and pays attention to the development of the sea
Denmark experienced hundreds of years of Viking times before it formed a unified kingdom. At that time, Danish pirates were invincible. They paid attention to the improvement of the hull and invented a new type of ship with narrow hull and curved bow and stern. In order to protect wealth and facilitate going to sea, they also established pirate fortresses such as Fort Trelle in Sylan and Argosburg in Jutland.
after the reunification of Denmark, King Harald, the Blue Tooth King, established his rule in Sealand and led a pirate ship to conquer Norway. Then, in order to better expand outward, many Danish kings established their rule on the island. The eastern expedition of Waldemar II to capture Estonia and the occupation of Visby by Waldemar IV depended on the construction of the island by the Danish rulers.
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historically, Denmark relied on the sea to grow, which made the Danish rulers have a natural ocean complex. They built their capital on an island, which is a manifestation of their ocean complex.
2. Copenhagen has a unique geographical advantage, which is conducive to economic development
Copenhagen is located in the middle of the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, guarding the Strait of Earle and mastering the ancient route from Western Europe to the Baltic Sea. This geographical location is very conducive to the economic development of Denmark.
in the fifteenth century, King Eric of Denmark proclaimed the capital of Copenhagen and imposed a strait tax on all who passed through Danish waters. The Strait tax has brought huge benefits to Denmark. Then, Denmark no longer levied the strait tax, issued a new customs tax law, implemented a free trade policy, and once developed the world's second-largest fleet with its superior geographical advantages.
now, a cross-sea bridge connecting Sweden has been built in Copenhagen, and the development of the free trade zone is getting better and better, so its role in the economic development of Denmark can not be ignored.
3. As an excellent port, Copenhagen is convenient for foreign communication
Denmark is located in high latitudes and still retains a lot of glacial moraine sediments. These sediments have a certain thickness, which reacts with the erosion of the sea water, resulting in the twists and turns of the Danish coastline and the flatness of the coast. Excellent ports with wind shelter and silt dredging functions, such as Copenhagen, are born accordingly.
in terms of commerce, Copenhagen has a wide range of deep waters and wide ports, which makes Denmark and even the largest commercial distribution center. The frequent trade has also injected fresh vitality into Copenhagen, and its shipbuilding, printing and dyeing, furniture manufacturing, pottery and other industries have been developed.
the frequent port exchanges have also brought about the prosperity of education. For example, the University of Copenhagen is a world-class university, which not only spreads the story of the dispute between Bohr and Einstein, but also builds an academic community with universities in Denmark and Sweden.
4. Denmark implements a policy of political neutrality
Denmark's capital Copenhagen is indeed facing a certain risk of war. However, the defeat of the war with Sweden, the German attack, the British shelling and other wars have greatly damaged the vitality of Denmark, which makes Denmark's attitude in the war has gradually become neutral. It also makes peace possible in Copenhagen.
in 1940, the German army invaded Denmark and demanded that Denmark not resist. Most of the Danish cabinet advocates no resistance, believing that Denmark has a flat terrain, no danger to defend, a neutral policy, lack of international support, and is disadvantageous to go to war. Germany then began to plunder the wealth of Denmark and set up military bases in Denmark. This has also aroused the resistance of the Danish people. However, until the end of the war, although Denmark damaged some equipment and lost a lot of money, it saved many lives. According to the World War II casualty figures released by the United Nations, 1400 people died in Denmark during World War II. The three Nordic countries also have a small population, with 10, 000 deaths in Norway and 84000 in Finland, which shows that Denmark has suffered relatively few population losses.
it can be seen that Denmark's strong marine complex, the advantages of Copenhagen in terms of geographical location and port construction, and Denmark's neutral policy are the reasons why Denmark chose to build its capital on an island.