Why did Vietnam set its capital in "Hanoi" instead of "Hue", the ancient capital?

Why did Vietnam set its capital in "Hanoi" instead of "Hue", the ancient capital?
In 1945, the last emperor of Vietnam, Nguyen Phu Pao, abdicated in Hue, the ancient capital of the three dynasties, and Hanoi became the new capital of Vietnam.

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In 1945, the last emperor of Vietnam, Nguyen Phu Pao, abdicated in Hue, the ancient capital of the three dynasties, and Hanoi became the new capital of Vietnam. 

Nowadays, the crowded and messy city of Hanoi has become a problem troubling Vietnam, and Hue has become a beautiful scenic spot for Vietnam's tourism industry with its advantages of sitting on many scenic spots. 

As a result, some people wondered what would have happened if Vietnam had set its capital in Hue. 

Why did Vietnam set its capital in Hanoi? 

In fact, Hanoi and Hue, as the capital of a country, do have their own advantages. 

First, let's take a brief look at the general situation of Hanoi and Hue. 

Hanoi has been under Chinese jurisdiction for a long time. 

Hanoi was built in 200 BC. 

The Legend of the Golden Beetle said, "the city stretches across thousands of miles, circling like a spiral, so it is said:" Luocheng. " 

During the Sui Dynasty, Hanoi became the governing place of Jiaozhi Prefecture. 

In the Tang Dynasty, Hanoi's chief, Annan, protected the mansion. 

Nanzhao Chronicle manuscript: "Tang Tingjia Annan protect, Jing Navy Festival to make qu Chengyu and Pingzhang things." 

At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the Tang government was weak and incompetent, and qu Chengyu, a powerful ethnic group in northern Vietnam, took advantage of the opportunity to establish political power in Hanoi, and the Tang government could only recognize qu Chengyu's orthodox status. 

Ding Bu, a Vietnamese warlord, unified North Vietnam in 968. 

At first, the capital was established in Hualu, and later, "visit Yue Bang, Si is a scenic spot, and it is an important meeting in all directions, and it is the capital above the capital of all ages." 

(the imperial edict of moving the capital) "moved the capital to Hanoi again. 

Since then, Hanoi has existed as the capital of Li, Chen, Hou Li and so on. 

Before the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Hue was located in the land of Baiyue, which was once the territory of China, and later belonged to Zhan Po City, which was the boundary between the Chinese dynasty and the Vietnamese regime. 

During the Ming and Qing dynasties in China, Hue became the capital of Guangnan, Xishan and Ruan dynasties because of its "dangers and obstacles, choked situation and good soil and water." 

It can be seen that although Hanoi and Hue have been the ruling centers of a certain regime for a long time, Hanoi has existed as a political center for a longer time, giving the people a strong cultural sense of historical belonging. 

So why does Hanoi have an advantage as the capital? 

I. Economic advantages. 

During the Song Dynasty in China, Vietnam established a centralized Li Dynasty, the capital of Hanoi, and took a series of measures to develop its economy. 

For example, the construction of water conservancy projects, "dike in the machine workshop". 

Li Dynasty nationalized the land, implemented the food city system, and "combined soldiers with agriculture" (men became soldiers at a certain age, soldiers also had to participate in agricultural production), controlled farmers with taxes and corvee, and initially constructed the development model of agricultural economy. 

In addition, the Li Dynasty also actively developed foreign trade, such as the Song Dynasty "since Xining, there has been no trouble, especially lenient and the city ban (" Song History ")." 

Li Chao also took advantage of Hanoi's "abundance of all things" to develop government-run handicrafts and private handicrafts. 

The agricultural foundation of Hue is also good. 

The Food system in the History of the Song Dynasty carries the food system in Hue. "Rice is longer than China, has longer ears and no awn, has a small grain difference, and grows regardless of land." 

But Hue is more prominent in its business. 

Guang Nan Nguyen, who became the capital of Hue, all attached great importance to business. 

Hue was also one of the three main transportation routes between ancient China and Vietnam: "Guangzhou-Hue". With the prosperity of trade between Europe and Southeast Asia in the 16th century, it became a commercial stronghold of foreign forces. 

This has exerted a subtle influence on the formation of the "pro-business" atmosphere of the local people in Hue. 

Hanoi is a traditional centralized development model of small-scale peasant economy, while Hue is a commercial economic development model that tends to be open. 

The Chinese dynasty "attaches importance to agriculture and suppresses commerce" to ensure the stability of the rule. 

Vietnam's rulers also consider the mobility and instability of commercial cities. 

In addition, too much economic function sometimes weakens the political function of the capital. 

By contrast, Hanoi is more advantageous to rule. 

II. Advantages of topography and topography. 

3ax 4 in Vietnam is a mountainous plateau, with high topography in the west and low in the east, and long and narrow topography. 

Hanoi is located in the Red River Delta, surrounded by mountains to the north, west and south, and to the west is the highest peak in Vietnam, Pansi Bang Peak. 

Hue is located in the coastal plain of eastern Vietnam, Changshan Mountains in the west and Haiyunguan in the south. 

The different topography of Hanoi and Hue can compare Hanoi's advantages in traffic and strategic defense. 

(1) Traffic. 

The Chronicle of overseas states: "Gaida Yue is always a mountain of twists and turns." 

There is no way for each government to get through. 

Therefore, those who live in other countries will follow the mountains into other ports from the open sea. 

Near the shore, the waves are difficult to go, and if there is a good wind, it can be reached in a day. 

Otherwise, it will be the tenth day of the half month. " 

It can be seen that in ancient times, the common mode of transportation in Vietnam was water transportation. 

Haiphong Port near Hanoi has a zigzag coastline, making it easy to avoid wind and waves and facilitate traffic. 

On the other hand, the Hue port has a straight coastline and strong winds and waves, which affects the traffic. 

In the development of land transportation in Vietnam, Hanoi has a stronger traffic focus and accommodation function because the hinterland area in Hanoi is larger than that in Hue. 

In terms of external transportation, since the Qin and Han dynasties, the Central Plains has opened up the Red River waterway with Hanoi, Guiyue water and land road, Yunnan-Yue water and land road, Hanoi traffic facilities are also improved. 

Haiphong Port in Hanoi also trades frequently with Guangzhou and other places. 

Generally speaking, Hanoi has a good traffic foundation. 

Hue Port is also a developed port to and from Japan, Koryo, Siam and other countries. 

But it has the worry of sediment deposition. 

According to the Chronicle of overseas, "the autumn wind dries up, the water dries to the east, and one wave sweeps away, that is, hundreds of miles, but if the wind is not strong, there will be worries about Changsha." 

This is because the coastline of Hue is less eroded and has a strong silting effect. 

In contrast, although Hanoi and Hue have a good transportation foundation, Hanoi has a better foundation and has the ability to control the Quartet.