The Treaty of Nibuchu has always been very controversial.
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It is estimated that everyone is familiar with the origin of the Treaty of Nebuchu.
Russia has been expanding since the 16th century, the so-called double-headed eagle, not to mention conquering cities and territories in Europe, but also crossing the Ural Mountains on a large scale to the east, and heading eastward directly bordering the Qing Dynasty.
By the early years of Kangxi, Russia had occupied Nibuchu, Yaksa, and other places, and established a series of strongholds and fortresses.
These places are the Nerczensk zone in present-day Russia.
At that time, because the Qing court was busy dealing with San Francisco, Kangxi began to think about how to deal with these uninvited guests who invaded Heilongjiang after he was busy dealing with the San Fan Rebellion. First, he conducted a tour to the east of Kanto, nominally to see the hometown of the Manchu people. It was to deter the Mongolian princes and deal with tsarist Russia.
At that time, the infiltration of tsarist Russia into Heilongjiang was already very serious, and the Heilongjiang generals set up by the Qing court could do nothing about it. Kangxi first built 19 post stations to open the channels for the transmission of materials and information. at the same time, General Sabusu was ordered to clean up the Russian stronghold. By 1682, the Russian stronghold was only the fortress city of Yaksa, and all other strongholds were swept away.
According to Chinese tradition, the north has always been the top priority, especially since the Manchu's hometown is in the northeast, so Emperor Kangxi always hated Yaksa. Soon after, the Qing government issued an ultimatum demanding that the Russians withdraw from Yaksa, but the Russians were determined not to withdraw. As a result, the Qing government attacked Yaksa twice on a large scale from 1684 to 1686, and the Qing government besieged Yaksa on three sides and was impassable with trenches.
In the end, only 66 of Russia's 826 invading troops were left, leaving Yaksa awkwardly.
When the news reached Moscow, Sophia, the Russian regent, immediately panicked, so she quickly sent ministers to peace talks with the Qing court, which was the origin of the Yaksa Treaty.
It can be said that it was not easy to sign this treaty at that time. Russian envoy Laigoni came to the Qing court in 1676, and the only missionaries who could communicate with him at that time were the missionaries who had come to the Qing Dynasty earlier. So the missionary Ferdinand Verbiest, who was very important to Emperor Kangxi, became his missionary.
However, missionaries were not secret guardians of the interests of the Qing court. After all, for missionaries, the Russian czar believed in Orthodox God anyway, but Emperor Kangxi did not believe in Christianity, so missionaries such as Ferdinand Verbiest passed on a lot of confidential information to Rygoni and helped them bribe many important officials of the Qing court.
As a result, the Russians were so confident in their honey that they were beaten to death by the Qing court.
However, this negotiation was still made by missionaries as interpreters, and the Qing government attached great importance to it. Sending university students to take charge of the map was tantamount to sending the prime minister to serve as ambassador.
It also guaranteed the strength of the Nibuchu Treaty.
In a cleft stick.
For Emperor Kangxi and Russia, the attitude towards the Treaty of Nebuchu was completely different.
First of all, for the Qing court, all previous dynasties attached great importance to the north. After all, the enemies of the traditional Central Plains dynasty generally came from the north. For the Qing court, it was the Mongolian forces dominated by Zhungeer, who colluded with tsarist Russia and posed a great threat to the Qing government.
So in fact, Emperor Kangxi planned to make concessions to the Nibuchu Treaty this time, that is, if Russia agreed to withdraw from Yaksa, east of Lake Baikal, then it would be best. If Russia insists on not withdrawing, then it can also be given to him, with spring as the boundary.
The reason for the decline to this extent is entirely from a realistic point of view, after all, for the Qing government, the land in the northern part of Heilongjiang is useless, and our country's attitude towards useless land is very clear-no.
After all, defending the ground costs money, and it costs a lot.
Naturally, you don't want to do it if you hold on to a loss-making business with little profit.
The final Nibuchu Treaty was basically by Kangxi's plan, which stipulated that the eastern part of the boundary between China and Russia was from Xinganling to Hagia Erbiqi River and Erguna River, and the north of Heilongjiang, to the south of the Wusuli River and the east of the Wusuli River, was the territory of the Qing Dynasty.
But for Russia, Yaksa is what they see as their territory. after all, Russia has been expanding massively over the Urals and has never thought that the Nebuchu region is any different from other no man's lands.
In addition, in the eyes of Russian historians, the Qing government never regarded the people of Nibuchu as their people, as the saying goes: "in Amur, the Manchu people did not adopt defensive tactics, and their military purpose was only to rob and take the locals."
The Manchu people did not regard Amur as their territory, nor did they regard the locals as their people. "but in fact, this remark does not stand up to scrutiny at all, and the so-called tactics of" fortification and persistence "are entirely in the Western point of view. because the Russians think that castles must be built to be regarded as territory, but in fact, our country has always been the rule of remote territory, and there will be no particularly strong restrictions on remote areas.
However, according to these views, Russian historians have long believed that the final demarcation line of the Nibuchu Treaty is at the level of national humiliation. Vasilyev, a Russian historian, once commented: "Under such circumstances, the Buryat people voluntarily joined the Russian state. At the same time, the Buryat people of Outer Baikal also volunteered to join Russia after seeing Russia's military superiority."
However, the "invasion" of the Qing government made Russia lose the land that it had joined voluntarily, so Russia has always believed that Russia, the boundary of the Heilongjiang region, suffered losses.
However, domestic scholars in our country often think that our country should have more territory in the provisions of the Nibuchu Treaty, because Lake Baikal in Beihai, where Suwu shepherds sheep, has been one of our spheres of influence since ancient times, so in fact, our country has suffered great losses. this has led to a particularly interesting phenomenon that both sides think that they have suffered losses and that no one has taken advantage.