Italy, a country on the Apennines in southern Europe
Italy is a country on the Apennines peninsula in southern Europe. Its capital Rome is a world-famous ancient city, such as the Roman Colosseum, Pantheon, St. Peter's Cathedral, Trajan Bazaar, and other places that have become famous tourist attractions. This 2,500-year-old city bears witness to the history of Italy. The Roman Empire, together with the Han Empire of the same period, became a highly influential developed empire in the eastern and western hemispheres, and its influence continues to this day.
what surprises people today is that although Rome was the capital of Italy after its unification in 1870, the Kingdom of Italy did not rename the country "the Kingdom of Rome" or "the Roman Empire". even if the fascist regime came to power before World War II and Italy established a republic after World War II, Italy did not restore the name of "Rome". What on earth is going on?
during the Roman Empire, the influence of "Rome" was far greater than that of Italy
Rome originated from the "City of Seven Hills" in the middle of the Apennines Peninsula. After the continuous expansion of the people of Rome, the scope of Rome is also constantly expanding. To bring the influence of "Rome" to the whole of Europe, the leaders of the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire made great efforts, and the scope of the Roman Empire gradually expanded. By the 1st century BC, the Roman Empire and the Chinese Han Empire echoed each other, and the Roman Empire even entered the history books of China, known as "Daqin".
perhaps in the eyes of the Chinese in the Western Han Dynasty, the strength of Rome is worthy of the Qin Empire, which unified China before the Western Han Dynasty. Therefore, the Chinese at that time also called the rapidly expanding Roman Empire "Daqin".
in sharp contrast to the "high-profile appearance" of the Roman Empire, the name "Italy" seemed obscure at first. It has nothing to do with Rome itself.
according to the textual research of some historians, Italy originated in the south of the Apennines Peninsula. At that time, some Greeks came to the Apennines to live, and they established many cities in the south of the peninsula. It translates as "V í teli ú", which is the earliest source of the Italian name. Later, after continuous evolution, the name of Italy became "Italy".
however, with the continuous expansion of Rome, the cities called "Italy" in the south of the peninsula were occupied by Rome. The people living in the city of "Italy", are already citizens of Rome. In 27 AD, Octavian divided various regions of the Roman Empire into provinces, the Apennines Peninsula was transformed into "Italian Province", and Italy appeared on the historical stage for the first time as a place name. But we must see that even if Italy becomes the "province of Italy" as a place name, its influence is still much smaller than that of the Roman Empire.
Bye! The Roman Empire
China's Han Empire and Rome have one thing in common: once national strength reaches its peak, it is likely to flourish and decline. The Western Han Empire flourished and declined after the death of Liu, the Emperor Xuan of the Han Dynasty, and the Eastern Han Empire flourished and declined after the death of Liu Zhao, the Emperor of the Han Dynasty. The Roman Empire gradually declined after the establishment of the Valentine Dynasty in 364 AD. In 395 AD, the East-West Roman Empire was divided. The Western Roman Empire regards itself as the orthodox Roman Empire. In 476 AD, the Western Roman Empire perished and its capital, Rome, lost its former elegant demeanor.
bid farewell to Rome, the halo of the Roman Empire, and its "historical impression" have changed from a synonym for a brilliant empire to a synonym for a city. With the rise of the Roman church, Rome has changed from a synonym for a city to a synonym for the center of Christian rule. Although the Eastern Roman Empire wanted to occupy Italian provinces and Roman cities after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, due to the increasing power of the Vatican, the Eastern Roman Empire had to take into account the power of the Vatican and gave up the impractical idea of using troops in the northern Apennines. Wars between the principalities of the southern Apennines and the Germans supported by the Eastern Roman Empire also bypassed the territory of the Vatican.
after hundreds of years of competition, the Germans established the Frankish Kingdom. The Frankish Kingdom unified almost the entire continent of Western Europe. Because Frank's state religion was Christianity, to win over the power of the Vatican, King Frank allocated a lot of land around Rome to the pope in 754, and the pope changed from the supreme administrator of a single religious rule to the supreme leader of the papal state. In today's words, the papal state has become a sovereign state under the leadership of the pope, and the capital of the papal state in Rome.
after the fall of the Roman Empire, Italy also changed from a provincial name to a geographical name. In Italy during this period, there was a powerful Frankish kingdom in the north, a papal state in the middle, and political chaos in the south, with many small principalities established by the Greeks with the support of the Eastern Roman Empire and infiltrated by Arabs. At this time, Italy is like China's Spring and Autumn period and the warring States period. After you sing, I will take the stage. Although various political forces and countries have the idea of taking the Apennine Peninsula and unifying Italy, due to the great influence of the papal state, all political forces are unable to give birth to a "Qin Shihuang" and eliminate the papal state to unify the whole Apennine Peninsula. Even great powers such as France, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain are of no use to Italy, which is divided into a mess.
slowly, the papal state supported by the Frankish Kingdom became the biggest obstacle to the reunification of the Apennines Peninsula. When will the Romans under the papal state revive the glory of the former Roman Empire? No one knows. Of course, places outside the papal state, such as Genoa, Florence, Venice, and so on, have formed very small urban republics, and there is nothing in these countries. Feudal autocracy, relatively free-thinking. The earliest predecessor of Renaissance thought the awakening thought of modern Europe, gradually sprouted in these urban republics.
Italy sprang up, Rome became synonymous with "negative"
the idea that the papal state suppressed his people with religion, while the papal state played his people around with "God", the Apennines Peninsula outside the papal state had already awakened. This awakening is the Renaissance. What is the Renaissance? To put it simply, affirm the role of man and expose the lies of religion to the "myth" of God. The Renaissance was like a spring breeze that liberated the minds of the people, but it could not reach the city of Rome.
Dante's Divine Comedy and Renaissance promoted the formation of modern Italian. During the period of Napoleon's Empire, new changes took place in the political territory of the Apennine Peninsula. Napoleon established a unified kingdom of Italy. After the fall of the Napoleon Empire, Italy was divided into several small kingdoms. Except for the Kingdom of Sardinia, all the other countries were puppet regimes of Austria.
the French Revolution and the establishment of the Napoleon Empire inspired the Italian people to fight. In the eyes of the Italian people, the former Roman Empire is a common memory of Italy and the Apennines. Today, the Apennines Peninsula is divided for a long time, and only by realizing the reunification of the country can Italy restore the glory of the Roman Empire.
driven by the thought of national independence, various countries on the Apennine Peninsula rose one after another to oppose the rule of Austria. In 1848, the revolutionary movement broke out in Europe, and the enthusiasm for national independence in the Apennines was even higher. Because the kingdom of Sardinia had the strongest national strength, the kingdom of Sardinia became the leader of the Italian unification war, and the army of Sardinia fought from north to south, unifying the Apennines peninsula like the King of Qin sweeping Liuhe. In 1861, the unified Kingdom of Italy was officially established.
so why doesn't Italy use the ancient name Rome? There are two reasons. First of all, Rome during the Italian Unification War was not the glorious image of the Roman Empire. At this time, the papal state with Rome as the center has become the biggest obstacle to the unification of the whole territory of Italy! To prevent the unification of Italy, France supported the confrontation between the papal state and Italy. It was not until the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War that Italy regained Rome and achieved final reunification. Because "Rome" represents too many negative points of the papal state, and its idea of governing the country runs counter to the Renaissance thinking that influenced the development of Italy, Italy can't use "Rome" as its name again after it has been established as the capital of Rome.
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secondly, during the period of the Italian unification of the Apennine Peninsula, the common people of the Apennine Peninsula were quite different from ancient Rome in consanguinity, ethnic division, living habits, and culture. Therefore, in the view of the Italian government, the name "Rome" as the name of the country does not accord with the actual situation of the culture and nation of the Kingdom of Italy.
based on the above two reasons, the Government of the Kingdom of Italy did not name its new country "Rome".