In September of the 13th year of Jian'an (208), Cao Cao wielded the division of Jingzhou, Liu Bei was defeated, Liu Biao died of illness, and the new owner of Jingzhou, Liu Jiuzhou, surrendered Cao. After Cao Jun occupied most of Jingzhou, he carried the Jingzhou Water Army into Yunmengze to train the Water Army.
In the early literature, there are many records about "Yunmeng", from which we can outline the general outline of Yun Mengze.
The earliest records were found in Zuo Zhuan, which said: "at the beginning, Ruo married in Yunfu."
In addition, "Yunmenze" appeared frequently in the pre-Qin documents such as Shangshu Yugong, Lu's Spring and Autumn, Mozi, Zhou Li and the Policy of the warring States.
However, the confusion of "Yunmeng", "Yunmeng" and "Dream" in ancient books has caused troubles and misunderstandings about the understanding of Yunmenze, which has given rise to a lot of disputes.
Du Yu, a historian of the Western Jin Dynasty, said: "Jiangnan is a cloud and Jiangbei is a dream."
The Chronicles of Hanyang also says: "the cloud is in the north of the river and the dream is in the south of the river."
According to du Yu, Yunmengze is bounded by the Yangtze River and is divided into Yunze and Mengze.
Correspondingly, Han Shu Geographic Chronicles clearly shows: "Huarong, Yunmeng Ze is in the south, Jingzhou Tau."
Gu Zuyu, a scholar in the late Ming Dynasty, put forward in "Reading the History of Fang Yuji": "Yun Mengze is in the northeast of the state."
The old cover is connected with the cloud dream of de'an (now Anlu, Hubei). "
This shows that Yunmengze is located to the north of the Yangtze River.
The "theory of crossing the river" and "the theory of Jiangbei" argue hard according to reason, and they can't hold it down.
In fact, the interpretation of the marching, training and combat details of Cao Cao's Water Army in the Chronicles of the three Kingdoms is of great help to reveal the mystery of Yun Mengze.
Many "acupoints" in rivers and lakes are unimpeded.
For Cao Cao's water army, there should be lakes as well as waterways.
The Yangtze River and Han River cross the Jianghan Plain in the way of overflowing. Yunmeng Ze and the two are connected to each other, forming a complex river and lake network.
Among them, three rivers, namely, lifting water, summer water and gushing water, connect Yunmengze with the Yangtze River.
During the Spring and Autumn period, the State of Chu made use of the water-lifting channel of oblivion, "Sun Shuao excited the water to make the pool of Yunmeng Daze."
Yu Chu, the West is connected to the Han River, Yunmeng wild. "
The artificially built "Yunmeng Canal" is the earliest canal in history. "all the canals can be boated, and if there is more than one can be used to soak them, the people will benefit from them."
The water gushing was silted up by sediment, gradually dried up in the Wei and Jin dynasties, and cut off in the Northern Wei Dynasty.
The summer water comes from the sand city, through the prison, turns to the northeast, to Shenyang, and enters the Han River, which is the largest distributary channel in the Jianghan Plain. Chu ci has the poem that "the first summer floats in the west, but Gu Longmen does not see it".
Not only that, there are more than 20 water dividers on both sides of the Jingjiang River in Shuijing Notes. "before the Song Dynasty, the acupoints were unblocked, so there were very few river troubles."
Based on this, it is concluded that it is entirely possible for Cao Cao to organize the stationing and training of the water army in Yunmengze, and then enter the Han River and the Yangtze River through the southwest distributary channel, in order to make preparations against Sun Liu's coalition forces.
Rise and fall without a trace.
During the Western Han Dynasty, the huge amount of sediment carried by the Yangtze River and Han River gathered and deposited in the Jianghan Lake basin, the silt lifting speed of the lake basin exceeded the geological subsidence rate, and the main body of Yunmenze shifted to the southeast. the inland plains composed of Hanjiang and Jingjiang rivers in the northwest of the lake are connected, and Huarong (southwest of Qianjiang, Hubei) and Jingling (northwest of Qianjiang, Hubei) inland plains appear in Huarong (now southwest of Qianjiang, Hubei) and Jingling (northwest of Qianjiang, Hubei).
The water level on both sides of Yangshui has dropped significantly, the river has been silted up, and lakes such as Lubai, Dongchi, ship officer, female view and so on have appeared.
From the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Eastern Han Dynasty, the shrinking trend of Yunmengze was not reversed.
With the further expansion of the plain area, the lake was squeezed to the south of Huarong, and its east and north were dominated by swamps.
Under the influence of Jianghan sediment transport, the lake is shrinking day by day.
Zhou Fengqin, an expert from the Yangtze River Water Conservancy Commission, believes in "the stage characteristics of the Historical changes of the Jingjiang River" that Yunmengze suffered from filling siltation in the past 1000 years. In the past 7000 years, the total amount of siltation is estimated to be about 505.36 billion tons, including 231.93 billion tons of soil and 273.43 billion tons of sand, while the annual sediment transport of the Yangtze River before the completion of Gezhouba Hydropower Station is 521 million tons, calculated according to the total siltation amount of Yunmengze.
The sediment transport of the Yangtze River in 970 can silt Yunmengze.
In December of the 13th year of Jian'an (208), the joint forces of Cao Cao and Sun Liu fought twice in Chibi and Wulin. Wulin "was on fire and the wind was fierce, and the ship was like an arrow, burning up the northern ship." Cao Jun "people and horses drowned a lot of the dead", Cao Cao had no choice but to "lead the army to walk along Huarong Road" and marched "when the road was muddy, the road was impassable."
He was forced to order "imperious troops to fill it with grass" in order to get rid of the siege of Sun Liu's allied forces and flee back to Xiangyang.
Through the description of the Battle of Chibi, we can see the signs of swamp in Yunmeng.
Through the interpretation of Cao Cao's battle process in Chibi, we will find that Yun Mengze is actually facing the dilemma of drying up.
During the Northern and Southern dynasties, Yunmengze was divided into Dazu, Horse Bone, Taibai and many unknown Shuize.
Up to the Tang and Song dynasties, there is no record of Dafan Lake in the literature.
Ma Gu Lake "dried up in spring and winter, that is, Pingtian."
15 miles in the week, Taibai Lake has not been spared, the lake body is swamped, and "the Reed is full of hope", which is known as the "wasteland of a hundred miles".
At this point, the large area of water body in Yunmengze is replaced by Huze beach.
At present, Professor Cai Shuming of the Institute of Aquatic Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences uses scientific means to synthesize the data of nearly 500 lakes, river distribution, fish fauna and geographical environment in Hubei based on rock drilling data. it shows that Yunmengze's "cross-river theory" is not valid.
The description of Yun Mengze in Jiangbei Theory is consistent with the results of scientific investigation, which is of positive significance to explore the rise and fall of Yun Mengze and helps to restore the original appearance of Yun Mengze.
Accordingly, the mystery of Yun Mengze uncovered the tip of the iceberg.
There are different opinions on the causes of the "cross-river theory", which need to be further studied and explored by historical and geographical experts.
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