Author: Wei Dingjun Correction /Editor: it takes 7 minutes for Lilith to read about 2300 words in terms of prosperity and prosperity.
in terms of prosperity and prosperity, in the past five thousand years, during the 24 dynasties, the Northern and Southern Song dynasties ranked first, and Tokyo was the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, with a population of more than one million. It is a big problem to govern such a large population.
how did the ancients carry out the urban layout during the construction of Tokyo?
1. City structure
the ancient western urban structure took towers, obelisks, churches, and other buildings as coordinate base points and expanded outward to form an axial urban framework.
while our country takes "inside and outside" as the core concept, forming a "suite" urban structure, which is also the case in Tokyo in the Northern Song Dynasty, which is composed of three parts: outer city, inner-city and imperial city.
1. The outer city
in May 1981, Kaifeng wanted to build a new tourist attraction in Longting Park, so it drained the lake from the park and accidentally found a large area of ancient architectural relics while cleaning up the mud. After exploration, it is confirmed to be the site of the outer city of Tokyo, which provides the basic coordinates for the restoration of the layout of Tokyo.
Today, the ruins of the outer city of Tokyo have been built as a park for residents to visit.
according to textual research, the perimeter of the outer city of Tokyo is 48 li and 233 paces. Over a long period, it has been built many times, adding horse noodles, battle sheds, urns, and other defense facilities. Over time, the defenses in the outer city of Tokyo are amazing. This city wall was not entirely built by the Northern Song Dynasty, it began in the Zhou Dynasty, was vigorously repaired in the Song Dynasty, and added all kinds of defense facilities. There are twelve city gates, including Nanxian Gate, Xinsong Gate, Chenzhou Gate, Dailou Gate, Xinzheng Gate, and so on.
however, if you want to consolidate mountains and rivers, you are not at risk in Germany. The strong outer walls failed to stop the demise of the Northern Song Dynasty, and in the first year of Jingkang, the Jin people angrily burned all four cities. Since then, the outer city built in the Northern Song Dynasty gradually degenerated into a dyke to stop the flood.
2. Inner city
the inner city is also called the inner city, with a perimeter of 20 li and 155 steps. The location of the main gate of the inner city has not changed for thousands of years, and the street frame of the inner city has also been preserved today, which is an important reference for restoring the layout of the whole Tokyo city.
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as the second barrier to defend the imperial city, the inner city is taken seriously and is often repaired. The Northern Song Dynasty perished and the Jin people settled in Tokyo. Think that although the outer city is strong, it is extremely difficult to defend, so vigorously build the inner city, the inner city as the main defensive place.
according to the development brief of Song Neicheng, the perimeter of the inner city is 11550 meters, which is about 559 meters in the Song Dynasty, and 11550 meters is converted to 20.63 li, which is consistent with the record of 155 steps in 20 li.
3. Tokyo Imperial Palace
Tokyo Imperial Palace, which was originally the emissary of the Xuanwu Army in Bianzhou in the Tang Dynasty, was changed to build Lu Palace in the Later Liang Dynasty, which was later used as a palace in later Jin and later Zhou dynasties, forming a pattern of Kaifeng Emperor and Palace. And affected the construction of imperial palaces after the Song Dynasty.
the Imperial City is surrounded by six gates, namely Xuandemen, Zuoyemen, Youyemen, Donghua Gate, Xiamen, and Gongchenmen.
there have been different opinions on how big the Song Imperial Palace is, such as the five li theory, seven li theory, nine li theory, and so on.
II. Street layout
Ying Fuli said that Tokyo "has the east-west in the city and the north-south in the city." Its qu four reach, its nine tracks. " It can be seen that the important feature of Tokyo streets is that it extends in all directions.
specifically, these streets are mainly four imperial streets from east to west, north, and south, plus three streets running through the city.
South Imperial Street is the north-south axis of Tokyo, which starts from the Imperial City Xuande Gate in the north, passes through the Zhuque Gate in the inner city, and ends at the smoke Gate in the south of the outer city. Different from today's streets, Imperial Street at that time played a role in blocking the communication between the two sides. There is a poem saying, "the monarch lives in the east of Royal Street and I live in the west of Royal Street." This is not alone. According to records, the residents on both sides of Imperial Street were only a hundred paces apart at that time, but there were not a few people who had no contact with each other. At that time, the imperial street was 100 meters wide and the narrow street was tens of meters wide.
the southward Imperial Road is mainly for the emperor to sacrifice to the temple and travel to heaven. The same is true of the other three imperial roads, which are used only for royal travel.
between several streets in Tokyo, there are many streets and lanes. Dozens of street names are mentioned in Tokyo Menghua Records.
generally speaking, the streets of Tokyo are mainly chessboards. Viewed from the air, the central vertical and horizontal lines are divided into four. Many horizontal and vertical streets are connected to form a chessboard, but there are also many loops and diagonal lines. It is different from the grid-like urban spatial pattern in which only vertical and horizontal streets are intertwined in the past.
secondly, there is a very famous phenomenon in the streets of Tokyo, called "invading the streets", that is, various acts of encroaching on the streets, including building houses on the streets, so seriously that the streets cannot pass through large cars.
it was difficult to stop invading the street repeatedly, and the control of the Song Dynasty was gradually weakened. since then, the street has evolved from a closed market system to an open market system.
the picture along the River during the Qingming Festival shows exactly what happened after the market system was broken.
3. River system
there are many rivers around Kaifeng, including the Yellow River, Joshua, Jingshui, Huaihe, and so on, and many rivers flow directly into Tokyo, such as the Bian River, Cai River, Wuzhang River, Jinshui River, and so on. Based on these four rivers, nearly 300 ditches have been built.
on the positive side, these rivers and ditches have good positive benefits for cargo transport, drainage, and urban beautification, but also negative effects. At that time, many local ruffians and hooligans, and criminals who escaped the crime were hiding in it, calling it a "worry-free hole", and even hiding women.
generally speaking, the positive values of these rivers' surface effect is greater than the negative effect. Take the Bian River as an example, this river transports millions of stones of grain every year, and the capital and Hebei all point to this river to eat.
IV. Space allocation
Tokyo's urban space can be divided into many spaces according to its functions, including political space, ceremonial land, royal garden, forbidden military camp, religious land, educational land, commercial land, recreational land, and so on.
according to several of them, we will analyze them in detail.
1. Political space:
political space includes palaces, government offices, and other places. Without much introduction to the imperial palace, the central government officials should have been in or near the imperial city, but due to the mixed control of the Song Dynasty, three provinces, six Cao, 24 divisions, and so on, so many institutions, it is difficult to accommodate naturally in the imperial city, concentrated on both sides of Xuandemen Imperial Street.
2. Space for etiquette:
Etiquette sites are mainly the Temple of Heaven in the southern suburbs, Fang Temple in the northern suburbs, Taimiao, Jingling Palace, and other places. Open-air altars are generally used to offer sacrifices to heaven and earth, while indoor altars are often used to worship ancestors. For example, the Temple of Heaven in the southern suburbs is used to worship heaven once every three years. The Tamiami is a place of ancestor worship, near Yulin Lane.
3. Royal Gardens
the Northern Song Dynasty was rich, and there were many royal gardens, such as Wanshishan, Yanfu Palace, Yujin Garden, Yichun Garden, and so on. Tokyo has flat land, open waters, and royal private gardens. At that time, there were more than 80 famous gardens, not to mention unrecorded gardens.
4. Religious Land
in the Northern Song Dynasty, there were many monks and Taoists, about 250000 people, and more than 40, 000 monasteries and temples. There are 913 in Tokyo alone. This does not include the "overbuilt temples" that are not recognized by the government. in the first year of Zhenghe, the number of overbuilt temples destroyed was as high as 1038. You can imagine how many temples, temples, and other religious sites are in Tokyo.
the current research on the urban layout of Tokyo is not deep enough, and most scholars have studied the layout of Tokyo in a variety of ways. Since the 1980s, numerous mistakes and omissions in various theories have been corrected, including drawing outer cities as rectangles, confusing palaces with each other, misplacing bridges, and the direction of the river is not in line with reality, and so on.
but Tokyo has always been one of the objects of concern in historians, and we all believe from the bottom of our hearts that all mysteries will be solved shortly.