Hong Chengchou, a native of Quanzhou in Fujian Province, who was born in Wanli, was undoubtedly a well-known figure in the late Ming Dynasty.
Hong Cheng-chou, a native of Quanzhou in Fujian Province, who was born in the Wanli period, was undoubtedly a famous figure in the late Ming Dynasty. No matter during the Ming Dynasty or the Qing Dynasty, it played an important role.
Hong Cheng-chou hawked dried beans for a living when he was a teenager, but he was very talented and ambitious, and he studied very hard. Hong Cheng-chou was 23 years old and became a scholar in high school the following year, and has since embarked on an official career.
Chongzhen (1629 AD), the peasant insurgents in northern Shaanxi attacked Hancheng (present-day Weinan Hancheng). Hong Cheng-chou, who was in charge of grain and politics in Shaanxi at that time, was ordered to lead troops to rescue him in the face of danger. As a result, 300 enemy soldiers were killed and the siege of Hancheng was solved, and immediately became famous. From then on, Hong Cheng-chou got out of control, formally abandoned the text from the military, and showed his skill in exterminating the peasant insurgents. Because of his meritorious service, he was promoted to the governor of the three sides of Shaanxi, and because he defeated the Rebellion many times, he became one of the main military commanders of the Ming government in suppressing peasant uprisings because of the military affairs of Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Huguang and Sichuan provinces.
is different from Zuo Liangyu, another famous general known as "everlasting victory" at the end of the Ming Dynasty. Zuo Liangyu's victories were achieved on Zhang Xianzhong, while Li Zicheng was repeatedly defeated. On the other hand, Hong Cheng-chou wins more and loses less to Li and Zhang, and the gold content is higher.
the Qing soldiers moved south at the end of the eleventh year of Chongzhen (1638 AD), and the famous general Lu Xiangsheng was killed. In September, Hong Cheng-chou was transferred to the Jinning Defense Line to block the Qing soldiers. Because Chongzhen blindly urged the war, Hong Cheng-chou was defeated and captured.
at first, Hong Cheng-chou reported his heart death and went on a hunger strike against Huang Taiji.
Huang Taiji sent Fan Wencheng, Zhang Cunren, and other Han ministers to exhort hard in turn, but Hong Cheng-chou was always unyielding. For this reason, Huang Taiji was very anxious and could not be reconciled to eating. According to legend, when the queen of Xiaozhuang saw this situation, she recommended herself and went to persuade herself. She tried her best to persuade her, and even "accepted her lips with a pot." after several days of hard work, she finally persuaded Hong Cheng-chou to eat again. In a few days, she was put into the Qing court account. This event is widely spread among the people, and there are many interpretations such as beauty tricks in later generations, but there is no official history in the end, and the real situation is known only by Xiaozhuang and Hong Cheng-chou.
regardless of whether Hong Cheng-chou gave Huang Taiji a green hat or not, he finally reduced the Qing Dynasty.
Huang Taiji is kind to Hong Cheng-chou. However, until Huang Taiji died, except for consultation, he had not granted Hong Cheng-chou any official position, but only ordered him to be the coated Niu Lu of Xianhuang Banner (that is, to reward Hong Chengchou's identity and treatment).
the Manchu Dynasty soon got a reward from Hong Cheng-chou. In early August 1643, Huang Taiji died suddenly in Qingning Palace in Shengjing. Dogen and Zirharang assisted the ninth son of Huang Taiji on the throne, known as the Regent. Huang Taiji died in front of Chongzhen.
the following year Li Zicheng launched troops from Xi'an to attack Beijing, and the Manchu flags clamored to enter the customs south. But Dogen does not expect Li Zicheng to be very smooth, especially in Juyongguan. However, Hong Cheng-chou asserted, "the general officers along the way are not strong enough, and the intruders are bound to bulge."
then Dourgen guessed that Chongzhen would transfer Wu Sangui's Guan Ningtie to Beijing Qin King, and Beijing would not be easily breached by Li Zicheng.
as a result, Hong Cheng-chou once again gave a "divine prediction": "Beijing will be lost before Wu Sangui arrives."Thief. " Dogen prepared his troops outside Shanhaiguan in advance according to Hong Chengchou's conjecture, and the final result was said by Hong Cheng-chou. As a result, the Qing army seized the first opportunity and defeated Li Zicheng. Huang Taiji was amazed and continued to ask Yu Hong.
Hong Cheng-chou deeply hated Li Zicheng in his heart and offered a plan to "take him by surprise, travel rapidly from Jizhou and Miyun near Beijing," and went straight to Beijing.
Li Zicheng's rapidly corrupt rebel army was unable to resist the iron cavalry of the Qing soldiers, and he did not want to fight for a long time. So after he hastily ascended the throne in Buying Hall, Li Zicheng abandoned Beijing and retreated to the stronghold of Xi'an.
Hong Cheng-chou analyzed the current situation for Dourgen in time: the Dashun regime controlled the whole northwest and parts of Shanxi, Henan, and Huguang, Zhang Xianzhong's Daxi regime was in the final process of comprehensively capturing Sichuan, and the residual forces of Daming still ruled the whole southern China. Hong Cheng-chou made it clear that at present, the main opponents of the Qing Dynasty are Li Zicheng, Jiangnan, and Zhang Xianzhong.
unexpectedly, in early August of that year, Huang Taiji died suddenly at Qingning Palace in Shengjing. Dogen and Zirharang were called regents as assistant kings to assist the ninth son of Huang Taiji, namely the throne.
in the second year, Dourgen formally proclaimed himself Emperor Dai Ming and established the State of Daqing in Beijing. Then, according to Hong Chengchou's strategy, Dourgen concentrated his forces first to deal with Li Zicheng's Dashun regime.
after Li Zicheng and Lien Chan were defeated and retreated to Shanxi and Shaanxi, the former Ming Dynasty was relegated to the Qing Dynasty. It should be said that in this process, Hong Chengchou's influence among the old ministers of the Ming Dynasty played a great role. The special importance and trust that Hong Cheng-chou received in the Manchu Dynasty also played a "positive demonstration effect" on the old ministers of the Ming Dynasty.
and by his experience in fighting with the peasant army for many years, Hong Cheng-chou accurately captured fighter planes many times and often put forward extremely predictable military suggestions to Dogen. After Dourgen Zihong Cheng-chou accurately predicted that Li Zicheng would not dare to risk the loss of Tongguan and retreat directly to Tongguan, but would first make a circuitous retreat to Henan to catch his breath, he paid more attention to Hong Chengchou's opinion, while Hong Cheng-chou offered the best plan to Dogen. It is divided into three routes, all the way to pursue and capture Li Zicheng's main force in Henan, and strive for the gathering and annihilation of Li Zicheng in the field; from Shanxi to Xi'an, Li Zicheng's old nest; and the other way to attack Tongguan, the gate in northern Shaanxi, once successful, Li Zicheng has no way to return to Shaanxi, but the southeast.
I have to say that this plan hit Li Zicheng's seven inches. Dogen acted according to the plan and sent his relative King Duoduo to attack Tongguan; Prince Aziger of England led the general's Wu Sangui, Shang Keto the south of Datong, Yulin, and Yan'an to take Xi'an; and he led nearly 200000 men to sweep Henan to search Li Zicheng.
the battle situation was as Hong Cheng-chou expected. Li Zicheng could not go west to Xiangfan after losing Tongguan and was forced to fight in the Xiangfan area. Only in May of the following year, Li Zicheng was killed in an armed attack by local landlords in Jiugong Mountain, Tongshan County, Hubei Province, and the Dashun regime collapsed.
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but Li Zicheng still had more than 300,000 people, who, led by Li Guo and Li Laiheng, succumbed to the Xiaoming Dynasty in Nanjing and continued to resist the Qing Dynasty for more than ten years.
after the downfall of Dashun, the military superiority of the Qing army was already crushing, and Hong Cheng-chou was reluctant to personally participate in the destruction of the remaining Ming regime in Nanjing, so he gradually shifted behind the scenes.
according to Dourgen, the young Emperor Fulin of Shunzhi, according to Hong Chengchou's title in the Ming Dynasty, sealed Hong Cheng-chou as Prince Taibao, Shang Shu of the Ministry of War and Imperial History of the right Capital, and was admitted as an assistant in the inner courtyard. Military affairs, with a bachelor's degree in the secretarial court, became the first Han prime minister in the Qing Dynasty. However, at that time, the Qing official system was still a rough creation, and the inner courtyard had only an empty name.
the second year of Shunzhi (1645 AD), in May, Duoduo led his division to capture Nanjing, and the "shaving order" under Dourgen (said to be suggested by Sun Zhikun) aroused widespread and fierce resistance in the south of the Yangtze River. Dogen once again played the card of Hong Cheng-chou and ordered him to replace Door to appease the Grand Bachelor of military Affairs of the Governor of the South.
Hong Cheng-chou was well aware of the support of the people. First of all, he made great efforts to restrain the Qing army's barbaric acts of the retaliatory slaughter of civilians after resistance, made clear the strategy of "giving priority to caressing" and "giving priority to peace" to the people, and minimized the resistance to the officials.
it can be seen that Hong Chengchou's lowering of the Qing Dynasty was like getting Xu you from Cao Cao in the Battle of Guandu.
first of all, Hong Cheng-chou was very influential among officials of the Ming Dynasty. His surrender had a great psychological shock on the Ming Dynasty. According to ancient customs, this represented "destiny and the will of the people." This is one of them.
Hong Cheng-chou was well aware of the details and combat habits of Li Zicheng and other peasant armies before "suppressing thieves" for many years, and often predicted the enemy's first opportunity, so that the Qing army quickly gained strategic superiority, including the later pacification of Sichuan and Jiangnan. It can be said that it was Hong Chengchou's high-tech masterpiece, which greatly accelerated the overall process of the Qing army's defeat of the military resistance of various separatist regimes. This is the second.
Hong Cheng-chou was different from the Manchu aristocracy such as Dourgen, and could not even forcibly suppress the people of the Central Plains by barbaric and brutal means. His security policy enabled the recovery of production, the attachment of the hearts and minds of the people, and social stability.
Huangtai has rewarded him several times for his efforts and efforts.