Hawaii used to be an independent country with its own unique religious history and culture.
Hawaii was originally an independent country with its unique religious history and culture. The original people are Polynesians. According to archaeological findings, Polynesians settled in the Hawaiian Islands more than 1400 years ago. Polynesians have long been in a clan-tribal society, speaking Austronesian, but without words, knots to keep track of things. The islanders formed various tribes, fought against each other, and believed in a primitive religion called Capri. Men go out fishing and hunting, while women collect and weave. Religion occupies an extremely high position in the lives of the residents. The priests of Capu enjoy great authority.
Hawaiian archipelago civilization has been isolated from the rest of the world for a long time. Until 1778 AD, by the British navigator James. Cook "discovered". Captain Cook landed on the Hawaiian island of Oahu on January 18, 1778, to escape the storm. In February, he was killed and mummified because of a conflict with the indigenous people.
the arrival of the Western fleet broke the tranquillity of the central islands of the Pacific Ocean. Colonists poured in, and in 1785, an unknown British merchant ship went to Hawaii to trade. In 1787, several more ships visited Hawaii. As the Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the ocean, far from the mainland and limited by the level of science and technology at that time, Western colonists were not able to invade Hawaii with arms, but mainly by religious, cultural, and economic infiltration.
after coming into contact with Westerners, the social form of Hawaiian natives has also changed, and new ideas and new technologies have been introduced. The indigenous people came out of primitive society and began to form a country. In 1810, the Great Chieftain Camermeher I unified the Hawaiian archipelago. Put an end to the disputes among the ministries and established the kingdom of Hawaii. Camermeihe established the modern legal system, developed the modern agriculture and textile industry, and established diplomatic relations with Britain, France, and the United States, which is like the scale of a modern country.
the reason why the United States annexed Hawaii
A new country was born in the boundless sea, but soon after this country enjoyed itself, at the beginning of its birth, it was favored by a rising power only more than 30 years older than him, and this is the United States. The reason why the United States wants to pick the "pear of Hawaii". The reasons are generally as follows:
first, the geographical location of Hawaii is important and has considerable strategic value. On the middle line of the vast Pacific Ocean, there are a series of islands from north to south, the Aleutian Islands, the Hawaiian Islands, and Samoa. The line of the island extends westward to China, Japan, and Southeast Asia, and eastward to the West Sea coast of the United States and the Panama Canal. And the Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of them, which is the key to the throat of the Pacific Ocean.
second, the "opening up" of the far East brings huge economic benefits, attracts the United States to expand eastward, and needs to seize Hawaii. Since the middle of the 19th century, the door of China has been gradually opened by the sharp ships and guns of the great powers. The Southeast Asian countries also gradually became colonies and semi-colonies of the great powers. New markets and new sources of resources bring a steady stream of real gold and silver. Davis, a member of the Foreign Relations Committee of the US Senate, said: "China is a coveted country in the world today."
third, with the development of the capitalist economy in the United States, military construction to safeguard economic interests is also following up, and a strategic fulcrum of the Pacific Center is needed. The United States began to build a powerful ocean-going navy to dominate the world. The ocean-going navy needs coal and supplies. In the Pacific waterway, it is very important to have a military station to support the long-range operations of the fleet.
as the saying goes, "the people of Chu are innocent and deserve their crimes." the small country of Hawaii, which is harmless to people and animals, has long had the ambition of bringing it into its arms because of its important strategic position. The annexation of Hawaii by the United States has roughly gone through three stages: the first stage, through the infiltration of missionaries and businessmen into Hawaii, gradually controlled the politics, economy, and culture of Hawaii; the second stage, launching a coup to subvert the imperial government and supporting the puppet regime; the third stage, the complete annexation of Hawaii, making it the territory of the United States.
the Bible and the US Dollar
the Kingdom of Hawaii was faced with a huge problem after it was established, that is, the contradiction between the newly established central dynasty and the old Capri religious forces. The priests of Capri have been dissatisfied with the king's autocracy, waiting for a chance to overthrow the kingdom. Finally, it was time for a showdown between the monarchy and the church. On October 8, 1819, King Camermeher II of Hawaii decided to eradicate the forces of Capitalism. Ordered the whole country to destroy Capu temples and idols and abolish Capu rules. Suppressed the rebellion of Kokuokalani, the leader of Capt.
after the traditional religious forces were destroyed, American missionaries took advantage of the Bible and occupied the spiritual market of Hawaiians. The American Christian mission landed in Hawaii on March 30, 1820. Missionaries are active in setting up schools, preaching the gospel, opening hospitals, and winning hearts and minds. Christian power in the United States flourished in Hawaii. By 1840, 18% of Hawaiian people had become Christians, and by 1853, the proportion was as high as 30%.
the arrival of missionaries is a double-edged sword for Hawaii. On the one hand, it brings advanced science and technology, and it also helps Hawaiians invent words. But, on the other hand, it helped the United States control Hawaii ideologically and culturally.
missionaries were followed by economic invasions. In the first fur trade conducted by Western businessmen in Hawaii, they later discovered that Hawaii produced a large amount of valuable sandalwood (today Honolulu, the capital of Hawaii, is called Honolulu in Chinese), where they harvested sandalwood and made a fortune. During the reign of Camermeher I, Hawaii ordered sandalwood resources to be state-owned and not to be felled indiscriminately. However, in the reign of Kamehermeher II, the logging ban was loosened. As a result, Americans put a lot of industry products, and Western luxury goods were sold to Hawaiian aristocrats, leaving them heavily in debt and repaid with sandalwood. As a result, Americans got a lot of sandalwoods and made huge profits.
after sandalwood resources were scarce, the United States began to export capital to Hawaii, using Hawaii's unique natural environment to grow sugar and tobacco. A large number of whites have poured into Hawaii, which has plantations all over the United States. And tobacco and sugar from Hawaiian plantations are largely dependent on the American market. In this way, Hawaii's economy is controlled by the United States.
the economic base determines the superstructure. In 1842, Secretary of State Webster said: "the United States is very concerned about the fate of the Kingdom of Hawaii. The United States should pay attention to the interests of the Kingdom of Hawaii and protect the Kingdom of Hawaii." This is already a clear indication that Hawaii is the sphere of influence of the United States.
within the Hawaiian government, because the economy and culture have been controlled by the United States, the regime has also been deeply infiltrated by Americans. During the reign of Camermeher III, eight Americans held important positions in the government of the Kingdom of Hawaii. By the time of King Runaly, three of the four cabinet ministers were American.
bayonet and coup
the United States has taken the next step to make the Hawaiian government a puppet of the United States. On February 3, 1874, King Lunali of Hawaii died. Prince Karakawa and former Queen Emma both have the right to inherit the throne and can run for the new king (according to the Hawaiian Constitution, the king is elected from among the heirs). Queen Emma prefers England, while Prince Karakawa is beautiful. The result of the election was a narrow victory for Karakawa. Queen Emma was not convinced by the election results and launched a riot. So Karakawa applied to the United States for assistance, and the American warships moored in the port of Hawaii immediately launched the operation, and two American warships, the Tuscarora and Portsmouth, landed and quickly took control of the situation in Hawaii.
Karakawa took the oath of succession to the throne under the protection of American soldiers. This operation set a precedent for the United States to send troops to intervene in Hawaii. after that, the US military landed in Hawaii many times, which greatly affected the political situation in Hawaii.
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Prince Karakawa moved closer to the United States after he ascended the throne. In January 1875, he signed the Meixia Mutual benefit Treaty with the United States, which gave Hawaii the most preferential tariff treatment. To make it easier for Hawaii to export sugar to the United States. By the same rule, Hawaii is not allowed to grant MFN status to other countries, nor does it allow it to lease its territory to other countries or provide other countries with privileges to use ports and territories. This marks that Hawaii has become the exclusive sphere of influence of the United States, but Hawaii has also reaped temporary economic benefits from exporting low-tariff sugar to the United States.
but in 1889, the United States suddenly unilaterally introduced the McKinley tariff Act, perfidiously canceling the preferential terms for Hawaiian sugar and subsidizing native American sugar at 2 cents per pound. The bill led to the collapse of the Hawaiian sugar industry and the destruction of the Hawaiian economy. For this reason, the Kingdom of Hawaii had to negotiate with the United States and was forced to lease Pearl Harbor to the United States in exchange for tax exemption for the Hawaiian sugar industry. The United States could garrison troops at Pearl Harbor and go its way, and Hawaii's sovereignty was further lost.
in January 1891, King Karakawa died of disease in the United States. His sister, Queen Lilio Karani, ascended the throne. Queen Liliuokalani is not reconciled to Hawaii being completely controlled by the Americans. Put forward the slogan "Hawaii is the Hawaiian of Hawaiians", and take measures to regain some sovereignty. For example, it argues that whites do not have the right to vote except to marry indigenous women.
Americans naturally cannot tolerate a series of patriotic actions by Queen Lee Okalani. American capitalists in Hawaii formed a "merger club" dominated by Thurston, plotting to overthrow the Queen. This is supported by Stevens, the US ambassador to Hawaii. "Hawaii has come to a crossroads, and he restricts the choice of a truth, whether to turn to Asia or the United States, to choose the United States, Hawaii will develop American-style civilization, and it will be closely related to the fate of the United States." if we do not take decisive measures, we will not be able to achieve the interests of the United States and the goal of seeking hegemony in the future. " Their propositions have been actively supported by the US government.
on January 14, 1893, Queen Lilio Karani announced that she would abolish the Bayonet Constitution, which gave privileges to Americans. Thurston immediately asked American warships to send troops for the Marines to overthrow the royal government, and the USS Boston landed on Oahu on January 16. Although the queen is the king of a country, she holds a police force of hundreds of people. It is no match for the powerful forces of the US military at all. On January 17, 1893, the Queen announced her abdication under great pressure. A "Republic of Hawaii" was established with Dur, an American, as its president.
completely gobble up
although Hawaii has completely become the Hawaii of Americans. But the opportunity for the United States to annex Hawaii is not yet mature. One is that American planters in Hawaii worry that their political and economic privileges and the right to enslave workers will be lost to enforce American laws after the merger. Second, at the end of the 19th century, Hawaii had a large number of Japanese immigrants, accounting for 50% of the total population, and Japan became a hegemon in East Asia after winning the Sino-Japanese War. It is also an emerging hegemony in the Pacific Ocean. Japan actively opposes the US annexation of Hawaii, and the US government still has some scruples about this.
but in the end, these cannot resist the ambitious ambition of annexing the Pacific Ocean caused by the development of American capitalism. In April 1898, the United States went to war against Spain, the old colonial empire, and launched the Spanish-American War to seize the hegemony of the Pacific Ocean. Eventually acquired the Philippines and Cuba. For Hawaii, which is already in the bag, the Yankees had no scruples about anything else, and in August 1898, Hawaii was officially included in the territory.