At the end of the Han Dynasty, there were many warlords and beacons everywhere. By virtue of the natural insurance of the Yangtze River, Sun Quan occupied six counties in the east of the Yangtze River, competing with Cao Cao.
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At the end of the Han Dynasty, there were many warlords and beacons everywhere.
By virtue of the natural insurance of the Yangtze River, Sun Quan occupied six counties in the east of the Yangtze River, competing with Cao Cao.
Ma Chao and Han Sui in the northwest sat in Guanzhong with valiant soldiers, while Ma Teng, a warlord from Liangzhou, served as a bodyguard in North Korea and maintained a good relationship with Cao Cao.
Zhang Lu has Hanzhong in his hand, but Cao Cao is out of reach.
Liu Zhang controls Bashu, which is easy to defend but difficult to attack.
By contrast, Jingzhou, where Liu Biao is located, poses the greatest threat to Cao Cao.
In the first month of the first year of Chuping, after Dong Zhuo forced Emperor Xian to move westward to Chang'an, all kinds of warlords changed from unanimous discussion with Dong to fighting with each other, especially Yuan Shao and Yuan Shu. Although they were brothers, their relationship was tense.
Yuan Shu formed an alliance with Gongsun Zan, "Shao was at odds with Zan and even Liu Biao in the south", and cultivated Cao Cao's power as his goon.
After this operation, it not only curbed the expansion of Yuan Shu, but also prevented Gongsun Zan from going south, and achieved the effect of killing two birds with one stone.
In the second year of Jian'an (197 AD), Zhang Xiu under Liu Biao fell and rebelled, defeating Cao Cao in Wancheng.
Cao Ang, the eldest son, and Cao Anmin, the nephew, died in the battle, and Cao Cao suffered the humiliation of losing his son.
Thus it can be seen that there is a benign interaction between Liu Biao and Yuan Shao, which is a stumbling block on the road to Cao Cao's hegemony.
In December of the fourth year of Jian'an (AD 1999), Yuan Shao joined Liu Bei, who broke with Cao Cao, and killed Che Zhou in Xuzhou, creating a lot of trouble for Cao Cao.
During the Battle of Guandu, "Liu Bei was between you and Ying, and he believed that to the south, the officials and the people were uneasy." Cao Cao felt a lot of pressure and was on pins and needles.
He sent Cao Ren to defeat Liu Bei, and the tension eased slightly.
In the fifth year of Jian'an (AD 200), Liu Bei took advantage of Cao Cao and Yuan Shao to make waves in Runan, killing Cai Yang, the general of Cao.
The following year, Cao Cao, who extricated himself from the Battle of Guandu, personally led the army to beat Liu Bei.
Liu Bei, who was slightly outnumbered, had no choice but to turn to Liu Biao and stationed in Xinye.
Jingzhou has become a refuge for the Cao faction.
In the seventh year of Jian'an (202), Cao Cao went northward to eliminate the forces of disabled Yuan.
Liu Bei took the opportunity to enter the army and was counterattacked by Xiahou Dun organization in Yexian County, one step away from Xuchang.
Liu Bei retreated by fraud and defeated Cao Jun in Bowangpo.
In the following five years, Liu Biao and Liu Bei posed a real threat to Xuchang in Jingzhou. Cao Cao must eliminate it.
The internal drive of the game among all parties.
In fact, Cao Cao, Liu Bei and Sun Quan have long coveted Jingzhou.
Zhuge Liang clearly said in "Longzhong pair": "across the bauhinia, benefit, protect its rock resistance, West and Xirong, south caress Yi Yue, outside a good Sun Quan, internal political theory, …"...
If this is the case, then the hegemony can be successful, and the Han room can be prosperous.
He thought that Liu Bei should first take Jingzhou and then Yizhou to complete the great cause of reviving the Han Dynasty.
Lu Su also suggested to Sun Quan: Jingzhou is adjacent to the country, with the current to the north, Jianghan to the outside, Sanling to the inside, the solid of the Golden City, thousands of miles of fertile fields, and the wealth of the people. If it is based on it, it will be the capital of the emperor. "
In the ninth year of Jian'an (AD 204), Xunyi planned a road map for Cao Cao to strive for hegemony: "fix Hebei first", "then restore the old capital", and finally "face Jingzhou to the south", then "the world will be decided."
On the surface, Liu Biao and Liu Bei of Jingzhou joined hands against Cao Cao, forming a two-on-one situation. in fact, Liu Bei was based in Xinye, and "more and more Jingzhou heroes returned to the master first". Liu Biao was displeased and "Yinyuzhi".
Second, the suspicion between Liu created favorable conditions for Cao Cao to send troops.
The geographical location is like the wings of a tiger.
According to Han Shu Geographic Records, Jingzhou in the Eastern Han Dynasty is equivalent to the current provincial administrative division, with jurisdiction over Nanyang County, South County, Jiangxia County, Guiyang County, Wuling County, Lingling County, Changsha County and other seven counties.
At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, part of the counties were divided from Nanyang County and South County, and Xiangyang and Zhangling counties were placed, forming the "Jingxiang Nine Counties".
The whole region includes Hunan, Hubei and southern Henan and other areas.
Zhuge Liang commented: "Jingzhou is occupied by the Han Dynasty and the Han Dynasty in the north, benefiting the South China Sea, connecting Wu Hui in the east, and Tongba and Shu in the west."
From a macro point of view, Guanzhong, the Central Plains, Bashu and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are economically developed and rich in products. Nanyang Basin is located in the center of these four areas. If you control it, you can control the situation in the world.
As far as Cao Cao is concerned, it is only about 200km from Nanyang to Luoyang and Xuchang.
Liu Biao is entrenched in Jingzhou, which has long been a major worry for Cao Cao.
In his strategic planning, it is obviously extremely important to take Jingzhou and eradicate Liu Biao.
Economic factors are eye-catching.
The ancient population meant productivity.
During the Western Han Dynasty, the economy of Jingzhou rose suddenly, and Nanyang County was the economic capital at that time.
At the end of the Han Dynasty, there was a lot of war in the Central Plains, only Jingzhou.
Under the governance of Liu Biao, "Jingzhou Fengle, the country is not widowed."
Refugees from Hanoi, Hedong, Runan and other places poured into Jingzhou one after another, but only in Guanzhong, "more than 100,000 people flowed into Jingzhou."
Cao Cao got Jingzhou and was able to expand his economic strength rapidly.
Land and water transportation extends in all directions.
The shipping advantages of Hanjiang River closely link Hanzhong Basin, Nanyang Basin and Jianghan Plain.
At that time, the eastern front was mainly in the Jianghuai region, and Cao Cao and Sun Quan formed a confrontation, while the western line included Guanzhong, Hanzhong, and Bashu areas, where various warlords controlled these areas, and Cao Cao was unable to win. Therefore, he could only break through Jingzhou from the middle line.
By conquering Liu Biao and seizing the control of land and water transportation, Cao Cao laid a solid foundation for seizing the world in the future.
In July of the 13th year of Jian'an (AD 208), Cao Cao sent troops to conquer Jingzhou. In August, Liu Biao died of illness.
His second son, Liu Jing, surrendered under the duress of a large family.
Liu Bei fled in a hurry and defected to Liu Qi.
Sun Quan was frightened and caught in a dilemma.
Cao Cao entered Jingzhou and gained the initiative strategically, which is just the starting point of the struggle among the three countries, and a bigger crisis is brewing.