Xuzhou is as far away as the Central Plains. Why does Liu Bei play Sun Quan as a herder in Xuzhou and make the latter quite useful?

Xuzhou is as far away as the Central Plains. Why does Liu Bei play Sun Quan as a herder in Xuzhou and make the latter quite useful?
Xuzhou is far away in the Central Plains, which is not something that Sun Quan can get his hands on.

when it comes to the Battle of Chibi, later scholars generally regard it as the beginning of the tripartite struggle of the Three Kingdoms, and Cao, Liu, and Sun have distinct differences, which is also the beginning of this. However, in the year or two after the Battle of Chibi, Liu Bei was not as high-spirited as posterity imagined. On the contrary, he had the feeling that "people have to bow their heads under the eaves."

according to Zizhi Tongjian Han Ji 58, "most of Liu Biao's dead officials returned to Liu Bei, and Zhou Yu gave him less land, which was not enough to accommodate the masses. He saw Sun Quan and asked the governor of Jingzhou."

to seek more "interests," Liu Bei risked being placed under house arrest to visit Sun Quan in Jingkou (both Zhou Yu and Lu Fan had suggested detaining Liu Bei). After this meeting, Liu Bei played that Sun Quan was a pastoral man in Xuzhou, who was quite satisfied with it. He not only "entered his sister in preparation", but also allowed Liu Bei to supervise Jingzhou.

the strange thing is that Xuzhou is far away in the Central Plains, which is not something that Sun Quan can get his hands on. So, how did Liu Bei impress Sun Quan with Xu Zhoumu's "bad check"?


1. Take the initiative to relinquish the dominant power of the alliance

according to the biography of Wu in the Annals of the Three Kingdoms: "Liu Bei showed that he rode on a bicycle and led Xu Zhou Mu." Prepare to lead the Jingzhou shepherd and the village public security. "

according to Liu Bei's biography, before he played Sun Quan, he had already determined the four counties in the south of the Yangtze River; after Liu Qi died of illness, Liu Bei, recommended by all, naturally took over the position of a shepherd in Jingzhou. Having said that, Liu Bei is in a rather difficult situation. Because although the four counties of Changsha, Lingling, Guiyang, and Wuling are under the jurisdiction of Liu Bei, several important strongholds connected with the Yangtze River are under the control of Zhou Yu.

there is Cao Cao (Xiangyang and Wancheng still belong to Cao Wei) on the land, and the waterway is restricted by Jiangdong, so Liu Bei's development in Jingzhou is not smooth.

that's why Liu Bei took the risk to pay homage to Sun Quan. The so-called "asking for governor Jingzhou" means that Liu Bei hopes that Sun Quan can truly recognize his ruling position in Jingzhou.

above, Liu Bei (161-223)  

Chen Shou once again mentioned the issue of "preparing to lead Jingzhou Shepherd", which shows that Liu Bei's governor of Jingzhou at this time has been recognized by Sun Quan. In other words, Liu Bei played Sun Quan as a general riding on a bike and a pastoral in Xuzhou, while Sun Quan recognized the legitimacy of Liu Bei as a pastoral in Jingzhou.

according to the transaction principle of "equivalent exchange", since Liu Bei has already gained a lot of benefits, then General Chechi and Xu Zhou Mu are certainly of great benefit to Sun Quan.

before that, although Sun Quan had been in the six counties of Jiangdong, his apparent position was only to beg the general and to defend himself. Liu Bei, on the other hand, was General Zuo and the Shepherd of Yuzhou.

in terms of military and official positions, the political status of Liu Bei is higher than that of Sun Quan. According to the usual practice, Liu Bei should be the "leader" of Sun Liu's alliance.

but Liu Bei also knows that his comprehensive strength is far inferior to that of Sun Quan, so he takes retreat as an advance and describes Sun Quan as a general riding on a bicycle and a herd in Xu Zhou, making his position half of his own.

especially the riding general, it is often one of the "standard configurations" for the leaders of the alliance of "thieves" since the end of the Han Dynasty. For example, when the Kanto coalition forces asked for Dong, Yuan Shao, the leader of the alliance, led a general to ride a car; another example was the unwarranted "pocket imperial edict" incident, in which Dong Cheng, the emissary of Cao Cao, the "Han thief", was also a general on bikes.

it can be seen that Liu Bei respected Sun Quan as the leader of the "Anti-Cao Alliance" when he was the general on the bike. At the same time, it also made clear Sun Quan's leading position in Sun Liu's alliance.

of course, the political reasons behind Sun Quan's remote leadership of Xuzhou Pastoral can not be ignored.

  2. Make up for the deficiency in geographical orthodoxy  

Xuzhou originally belongs to Cao Wei, which is not under the jurisdiction of Liu Bei, nor does Sun Quan Neng get his hands on it. Therefore, the act of Sun Quan leading Xu Zhou to shepherd belongs to remote leadership. "remote takers do not enter the territory, but set up stabbing history and county guards in other parts of the country." (see the History of Reform along the Territory of China written by Gu Jiegang and Shi Nianhai)

the phenomenon of the remote collar is quite common in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties, among which Wu and Shu are the most common.

after the Battle of Chibi, Liu Bei sealed Guan Yu as Xiangyang Taishou, Sun Quan changed his name to Huanglong, and Zhu ran to become Yanzhou Mu. However, Xiangyang County belongs to Cao Wei, and Yanzhou is Cao Cao's nest. It can be seen that Wu and Shu often "vainly grant" the territory of Cao Wei to their subjects.

what is more interesting is that after Sun Quan officially became emperor, he "shared" the territory of Cao and Wei with Shu.

according to the Biography of Wu in the Annals of the Three Kingdoms, "Quan is divided into the world. Yu, Qing, Xu and you belong to Wu, and Yu, Ji, he, and Liang belong to Shu." The land of Sizhou is bounded by the Hangu pass. "

because Yanzhou and Jizhou were "divided" to Shu, it was not long before Zhu ran's Yanzhou Shepherd and Buyi's Jizhou Pastoral was removed.

Why is the phenomenon of remote collar so common in Wu and Shu?

this is by no means a bluff. In fact, as a necessary political means, Wu and Shu wanted to express their orthodoxy through the act of remote access.

Cao Cao occupied a high position in politics by "serving the son of Heaven without giving orders" and "moving to the imperial court as an excuse". In addition, Cao Wei occupied seven or eight of the ten lands in the world according to the Central Plains. Therefore, Cao Wei occupied an orthodox position in geography.

Sun Liu Alliance, relying on Liu Bei's identity as a "descendant of the royal family", and playing "Kuangfu"Han room, also in the old capital "slogan. Therefore, Wu and Shu occupied an orthodox position in reputation.

under such circumstances, the reason why the Wu and Shu kingdoms, which are in a small corner, have a large number of remote claims and false seperations (similar to remote claims, which means that the endowment of the knighthood is in the territory of another country) is to make up for their own disadvantage in geographical orthodoxy.

to sum up, Liu Bei played Sun Quan as the shepherd of Xuzhou, which can be regarded as the beginning of the remote leadership of Wu and Shu. This not only makes it clear that Sun Liu Alliance strives for the unified goal of orthodoxy, but also makes Sun Quan reasonably attached to the orthodoxy of Shuhan, so as to make up for his double disadvantages in geography and reputation.

  3. Help Sun Quan gather the Liuyu scholar clan  

Sun Quan leads the pastoral clan in Jizhou, either Jizhou or Jizhou, but why Xuzhou Pastoral?

from the point of view of Sun Quan's "chatting and talking about Xuzhou" with Lu Meng in the future, Liu Bei played that Sun Quan was the shepherd of Xuzhou, which was probably the result of the latter's active choice.

this is because most of the important counselors (Liu Yu clans) in Jiangdong were born in Xuzhou. For example, Zhang Zhao is a native of Pengcheng, Zhang Yan and Chen Duan are people of Guangling, Zhuge Jin is a native of Langya, and Buyi is a native of Huaiyin (Linhuai County at that time).

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within the Jiangdong regime, although Sun Quan reached a cooperative relationship with the Jiangdong tycoons, he still needed other forces to check and balance them. In addition to Sun's clan relatives and Huai Si old generals (referring to the Yuan generals of Sun Jian and Sun ze, mostly from Jiangxi), the Liu Yu clan (referring to the foreign scholars who took refuge in Jiangdong) was also an important force.

the aristocratic families represented by Zhang Zhao and Zhuge Jin are not native to Jiangdong. Therefore, Sun Quan is more willing to attract them to help him suppress the Jiangdong family.


according to the biography of the Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, citing Wu Shu, "Quan is a pastoral man in Xuzhou.

according to the Han system, local governors have the right to recruit and recruit local talents. Therefore, Sun Quan is a pastoral herder in Xuzhou, so he can justifiably promote the aristocratic clans of Xuzhou origin and bring them to his side.

from this point of view, Liu Bei says that Sun Quan is a shepherd in Xuzhou, not a "blank check". This can not only make up for the double inferiority of Jiangdong regime in geography and reputation, but also help Sun Quan stabilize his ruling position.

it can be seen that transactions between smart people are often win-win.