Why was Empress Dowager Cixi's attempt to depose Emperor Guangxu opposed by all countries?

Why was Empress Dowager Cixi's attempt to depose Emperor Guangxu opposed by all countries?
In the late Qing Dynasty, there was a particularly strange and interesting event-Jianhai Jianchu. To put it bluntly, the Empress Dowager Cixi helped Emperor Guang Xu set up a king, which, of course, is called "Big Brother" according to the Empress Dowager Cixi.

in the late Qing Dynasty, there was a particularly strange and interesting event-Jianhai Jianchu.  to put it bluntly, Empress Dowager Cixi helped Emperor Guang Xu set up a Chu King, which, of course, is called "Big Brother" according to Empress Dowager Cixi.  it can be said that there are many reasons why this very obvious move to abolish the emperor came to an end, but what is interesting is that in this process, the intervention of foreigners had a great impact on Cixi, and even led to the invasion of China by the allied forces of the eight powers in a sense.


for Empress Dowager Cixi, the complete tear of her face with Emperor Guang Xu may have never been dreamed of.

in the later period of the Reform Movement of 1898, Empress Dowager Cixi learned from Rong Lu that the reformers' bold plan to kill her completely infuriated her. She launched a mutiny in the name of a military parade and imprisoned Emperor Guangxu in Yingtai.  is, after all, a veteran cop, and the fierce tactics of Empress Dowager Cixi instantly gave her an absolute advantage. After the coup of 1898, the reformers in the whole court completely collapsed, and the most depressing era of the Qing Dynasty began.

after the coup of 1898, Empress Dowager Cixi became extremely hostile to the nephew who called her father every day and had been submissive for many years. After all, after Tongzhi's death, Cixi had no choice but to choose Guang Xu to take over. Now Guang Xu, a "rebellious son", dares to attack himself. Of course, he wants to abolish him. Come up with a more obedient one.


Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823-November 7, 1901) in Foreign Illustrated above so Cixi began the three steps of abolishing the Emperor.

first of all, she promoted a large number of die-hards loyal to her to the core of the court.  for example, the conservative school represented by Gangyi and Xu Tong in the imperial court at that time mastered the two core departments of the military aircraft and officials Department. The honor and income that Empress Dowager Cixi believes most naturally override Li Hongzhang, who has only an empty shell.


in the core power circle of the imperial court at that time, the power of the latter party had already occupied the absolute majority. Cixi did this to prepare for the abolition of the emperor, to occupy the absolute advantage first, and to form the trend of "Mount Tai overcoming the top".  Empress Dowager Cixi is convinced that Emperor Guangxu is bound to counter-attack after her death, which even the Japanese can see clearly.


Japan's current Affairs News, according to a blunt comment from the Beijing commissioner, said:  "the Manchurians thought that the Western Empress was old and Guang Xu was strong, and if the Empress Dowager died, he might be afraid that Guang Xu would return to power, which would be bad for himself, so it would be better to avoid his roots when he was with the Western Empress."


after the first step of changing courtiers, Cixi began its second step: to find a core figure who can replace Guang Xu.  since Guang Xu has no son, she has never had a prince to stand on, so Cixi must have thought of finding a suitable candidate from the obedient Wang Ye.  under such circumstances, at the end of January 1899, she continuously summoned more than a dozen patriarchal boys of the Pu generation. After all, the children were well controlled, and she could calmly perform the trick of hanging curtains and listening to politics.

after careful selection, she thinks Pufu, the 14-year-old second son of Duan Wang Ziyi, is the most suitable candidate. In addition to the right age and status (belonging to the next generation of Guang Xu), the main reason is that his father Zai Yi is a famous post-party and a good servant to Cixi, so it is foolproof for Cixi to choose Puyi.  and Zai Yi controls the Capital Tiger God Camp and holds the military power. Once the abolished emperor succeeds and the emperor party changes, he can immediately play and suppress it and will not be caught in a passive position.

The picture above _ Aixinjueluo Puji [Jinjn] (1885-1942), Duanjueluo Zaiyi's second son

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the first two steps are ready, and Cixi is ready to begin the third step: abolishing the emperor.   

on September 25, 1898, Cixi announced that Guang Xu was "seriously ill." after that, Cixi began to publish pulse plans day by day, seeking famous doctors all over the world, which probably meant that it would be normal if Guang Xu died accidentally.


the sense of abandonment has been made clear.


however, Cixi's idea did not succeed in the end, and the reason is very simple-she faced unexpected resistance.

above shortly after Cixi announced that Emperor Guangxu was seriously ill, Liu Kunyi, governor of the two rivers, sent a letter to the court on October 13, expressing opposition and harsh wording:  "fear of human feelings, strong neighbors look around, "It is inevitable to borrow troops. "  the document, which is said to be written by Zhang Qian, was sent directly to the General Administration of the Qing Dynasty. In the face of Liu Kunyi's tough warning, Empress Dowager Cixi said that "Xiaoqin was afraid to stop", but did not stop her construction and storage plan, only postponed until January of the following year.

however, Cixi did not expect that Liu Kun was not the only one who opposed this plan at that time. As one of the core figures of the imperial court, Li Hongzhang also expressed his clear opposition. On January 24, 1900, Empress Dowager Cixi announced that Pu Yu was named  "son of Emperor Mu Zongyi". This is a step forward and retreat. Guang Xu's throne can be abolished, and the throne can be made heir first, and then the throne will be abolished in the future. But after the plan was announced, Liu Kun announced angrily that he would "beg out" (resign).

the above picture _ Ronglu (1836-1903) is Zhonghua, the number is slightly Yuan, Guardia´╝îLi Hongzhang is furious with Ronglu:  "what kind of things can be done today?" Ask how many heads you have and dare to try. If the matter were to be held, it would be dangerous. The envoys of various countries are the first to protest, and the ministers of the provinces even have those who condemn their righteousness and move troops from all over the world for no reason, so that they can do more harm than they can say! "


Rong Lu was alarmed by such harsh words, and Cixi directly exposed Li Hongzhang as the governor of Guangzhou and Guangzhou and demoted him out of the central government in disguise. But Ronglu has already felt that it is not feasible to establish a waste at this time. After all, once the son of Zaiyi takes office, Zaiyi must be expensive by his father and son. At that time, his first auxiliary position may not be guaranteed, and there will be more trouble in the future.  so Rong Lu expressed neutrality to Empress Dowager Cixi's plan to abolish Empress Dowager, while secretly supporting Li Hongzhang, Zhang Zhidong, Liu Kunyi, and others to submit a letter to oppose it.

but there is no doubt that the biggest threat to Empress Dowager Cixi comes from the intervention of various countries. As countries saw through the old-fashioned face of Empress Dowager Cixi, they were full of sympathy and support for Emperor Guangxu, a reformist emperor.

on the one hand, the reformist Emperor Guang Xu is conducive to the entry of Western capital into China and bring them greater benefits.

on the other hand, once Guang Xu comes to power and Cixi, who is hostile to the West, steps down, the entire Qing Dynasty is bound to become fat for all countries in the far East, and the current stagnant, weak and closed situation is very disadvantageous to the West.

the ice car pictured above is one of the hobbies of the puppet emperor Guang Xu.    

the most important point is that Zai Yi is extremely hostile to the West, poses a threat to the direct interests of Western countries, and acts so despicable that even foreigners can't stand it. Therefore, Western countries directly telegraphed Cixi on January 24th to request the diagnosis of Emperor Guang Xu.


above the Empress Dowager Cixi was finally forced to give up the plan to abolish the emperor, but in this storm, she hated foreigners deeply, and she turned to think that foreigners were the source of all evils. After all, it doesn't matter to her whether the Qing court was eroded with holes. However, Guang Xu can't counterattack in the future after his death, so it is not surprising that Empress Dowager Cixi gained a treasure as soon as she saw the Boxer uprising and thought that "popular sentiment is available."

however, Cixi did not expect that Liu Kun was not the only one who opposed this plan at that time. As one of the core figures of the imperial court, Li Hongzhang also expressed his clear opposition. On January 24, 1900, Empress Dowager Cixi announced that Pu Yu was named  "son of Emperor Mu Zongyi". This is a step forward and retreat. Guang Xu's throne can be abolished, and the throne can be made heir first, and then the throne will be abolished in the future. But after the plan was announced, Liu Kun announced angrily that he would "beg out" (resign).


Rong Lu was alarmed by such harsh words, and Cixi directly exposed Li Hongzhang as the governor of Guangzhou and Guangzhou and demoted him out of the central government in disguise. But Ronglu has already felt that it is not feasible to establish a waste at this time. After all, once the son of Zaiyi takes office, Zaiyi must be expensive by his father and son. At that time, his first auxiliary position may not be guaranteed, and there will be more trouble in the future.  so Rong Lu expressed neutrality to Empress Dowager Cixi's plan to abolish Empress Dowager, while secretly supporting Li Hongzhang, Zhang Zhidong, Liu Kunyi, and others to submit a letter to oppose it. but there is no doubt that the biggest threat to Empress Dowager Cixi comes from the intervention of various countries. As countries saw through the old-fashioned face of Empress Dowager Cixi, they were full of sympathy and support for Emperor Guangxu, a reformist emperor.