The air combat in the Korean War was very wonderful.
mentioned that during the Korean War from 1950 to 1953, in addition to the direct battle between the Chinese and Korean armies and the US military on the ground, the combat in the air was also very wonderful. The United States Air Force, which defeated the German and Japanese aviation forces and ranked first in the world, was unexpectedly defeated by the volunteer air force, which had not been established for a long time. Judging from the result exchange ratio, the volunteer air force shot down 330 US aircraft and injured 95 US aircraft at the cost of losing 231 aircraft, and seized local air supremacy over the DPRK. Even General Vandenberg, chief of staff of the US Air Force, exclaimed that China had become one of the world's major airpower almost overnight.
so why did the US Air Force lose to the Volunteer Air Force in North Korea?
first, MIG 15, the main weapon of the volunteer air force, has advanced performance, surpassing the F86 fighter of the US Air Force in some respects. The installation of MIG 15 fighter jets became the most direct reason why the Chinese volunteer air force defeated the US air force.
MIG 15 fighter is the first generation of jet fighter equipped by the Soviet Union after the end of World War II, and it is on the same level as the F80, F84, and F86 fighters of the US Air Force.
the Soviet Union began the development of gas turbine engines as early as the 1920s, but its progress lags far behind that of Britain and Germany. After Germany surrendered in 1945, the Soviet Union seized a large number of German jet data, including ME262 fighter data, and the Soviet authorities allowed the Yakovlev Design Bureau and the Migoyang Design Bureau to carry out the development of jet fighters at the same time. The aircraft developed by the Yakovlev Design Bureau is the Jacques 15 and the aircraft designed by the Migoyang Design Bureau is the MIG 9.
in 1946, both Jacques 15 and MIG 9 fighters were equipped with the Soviet Air Force. However, the performance of Jacques 9 and MIG 15 was not satisfactory to the Soviet authorities. In particular, the MIG 9 fighter plane, whose speed is only 800km /h, can not meet the operational needs of the Soviet Air Force jet fighter. The Migoyang Design Bureau immediately developed a new jet according to the new requirements put forward by the Soviet military.
however, the Soviet Union does not have mature aero-engines for the development of new jets. At a critical moment when the Soviet Union was at a loss for aero-engines, Britain exported 25 Nien engines to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Crimov engine Development Center soon imitated the Devon turbojet engine based on the Nien engine, which laid a solid foundation for the birth of the Soviet Air Force MIG 15.
in June 1947, the MIG 15 fighter prototype loaded with a Devon engine was unveiled. At the end of 1948, MIG 15 fighters were formally equipped with the Soviet Air Force, and the Soviet Union successively produced more than 18000 MIG 15 fighters, becoming the main jet fighters of the air forces of Warsaw Pact countries, China, North Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia, and other countries.
compared with the F86 fighter plane of the same generation of the US Air Force, the MIG 15 fighter has the following advantages:
first of all, the firepower of the F86 is not as good as that of MIG 15. MIG 15's firepower is a 37 mm aircraft gun, 2 23 mm aircraft guns, equipped with more than 200 shells, F86 firepower of 6 12.7mm aircraft machine guns, equipped with more than 6000 machine gun bullets. When the two sides are engaged in an air battle, MIG 15 can directly penetrate the metal shell of the F86 with its aircraft cannon. As long as one or two shells hit the F86 engine, the F86 will lose its power and fall to the ground.
secondly, although the horizontal performance of the F86 is good, the MIG 15 fighter has a strong diving advantage. In actual air combat, MIG 15 can dive from high altitude and attack F86. The practical limit of MIG 15 is 15500 meters, while that of F86 is only 15000 meters.
after the successful development of MIG 15, the Soviet Union developed the MIG 15 Bess fighter based on MIG 15, and the MIG 15 Bess fighter made up for MIG 15's defects. it has helped the Soviet Air Force and the Volunteer Air Force achieve greater results in the Korean air war.
the MIG 15 fighter is the first generation of actual combat jet fighter equipped by the Chinese Air Force. The emergence of MIG 15 has enabled the Chinese Air Force, which has just been in the army for more than a year, to step into the world's advanced level in weapons. The volunteer air force has achieved excellent results in defeating the US air force, and a large number of ace pilots have emerged, thanks to MIG 15.
according to relevant records, China has successively imported 1500 MIG 15 fighter jets from the Soviet Union, laying a solid foundation for China to build a strong air force and defend the motherland's airspace.
Volunteer Air Force in the War to resist US aggression and Aid Korea
second, according to MIG's performance summary tactics, the volunteer air force formulated a "one-domain, multi-layer, four-four" tactic to deal with the US Air Force.
the United States Air Force, the opponent of the volunteer air force, is a powerful air force that has experienced World War II, ranking first in global strength. At that time, the US Air Force had more than 17000 aircraft, and most of its pilots fought to the death with German and Japanese aircraft, flying for more than 2000 hours, and some pilots flew for more than 3000 hours. On the other hand, the pilots of the volunteer air force mostly fly for 100 hours and lack the actual combat experience of jet fighters. In the face of the powerful US Air Force, the volunteer air force actively summed up the tactics according to the performance comparison and operational characteristics of the enemy and our aircraft and finally summed up the tactics suitable for the volunteer air force-- one-domain, multi-layer, four-four tactics.
it must be pointed out that the emergence of a multi-layer four-four tactic in the first domain is an air combat tactic born by the volunteer air force to adapt to the US Air Force equipped with F86 fighters. After the US Air Force was equipped with F86 fighters, it abandoned the large formation air combat tactics and adopted the "mobile four aircraft" combat method, using several "mobile four aircraft" units to form echelons according to different heights and different intervals. Patrol the air war zone.
this combat method is convenient to give full play to the high-speed maneuvering flight characteristics of jet aircraft, and it is a tactical innovation. The US military also likes to use two 16-plane formations to form a large depth formation, and two 16-plane formations to support each other. When the US military discovers a volunteer aircraft fleet, the US 16-plane formation will be based on actual combat and flexibly dispatch units of 4 aircraft and 8 aircraft to intercept volunteer aircraft groups in the air. From September to October 1951, the volunteer air force and the US military fought several large formation air battles involving hundreds of aircraft, and the US military's new tactics once brought a lot of trouble to the volunteer air force.
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above, Li Han, a volunteer air force pilot who shot down an enemy plane for the first time
as vice rises one foot virtue rises ten since the US Air Force has changed its tactics, the volunteer Air Force must also make corresponding changes in tactics. Volunteer air force commanders and pilots at all levels used their brains and offered suggestions. After repeated studies and discussions by commanders at all levels, the volunteer air force's new tactic, the one-domain, multi-layer, four-four tactic, was officially born.
what are the multi-layer four-four system tactics in one domain? To put it simply, the same group of aircraft fighting with the same echelon, taking four aircraft of a squadron as a unit, forms a combat formation of a small formation with great depth according to different intervals, distances, and heights, and confront enemy aircraft in the same airspace by the unified operational intention of the superior.
"one domain" means the same airspace and is the core of the multi-layer four-four system tactics of one domain. According to this tactical principle, the volunteer air force must gather all its aircraft together and concentrate its forces to launch a counterattack against the US military. Liu You, commander of the Air Force, has a vivid analogy to the multi-story 44-4 system in the first domain: the leader in the flight formation is compared to the queen bee, and the rest of the aircraft are worker bees. Worker bees fly wherever the queen bee flies. Don't spread out at any time.
due to the emergence of multi-layer four-four tactics in one domain, the US Air Force was overwhelmed by the Volunteer Air Force in the Korean air battle. The ace pilot of the United States Air Force was also shot down by the volunteer air force in air combat. On February 10, 1952, the F86 fighter piloted by US Air Force ace Davis was shot down by volunteer Air Force pilot Zhang Jihui. The result of this air battle shocked the world, and General Whelan, commander of the US far East Air Force, declared that "the shooting down of Davis was a heavy blow to the US Air Force in the far East." On April 12, 1953, volunteer air force pilot Jiang Daoping shot down another American ace pilot, McConnell.
by shooting down the air combat of US ace pilot Davis, we can see the tactical maturity of volunteer air combat.
Davis is the ace pilot of the US Air Force. He participated in the war 266 times during World War II and is known as "Davis who wins all battles". On February 10, 1952, 16 US Air Force F80 and F84 fighters attacked railways in North Korea under the cover of F86, and the volunteer air force took off 34 MIG 15 to meet the enemy. Captain Zhang Jihui found a white smoke trail in the distance and judged that the enemy aircraft group was nearby. After a period of flight, Zhang Jihui and his wingman Shan Zhiyu immediately fought a fierce battle with eight US military aircraft.
in the air combat, Zhang Jihui bit the long plane of the US military and opened fire violently. Shan Zhiyu first opened fire with Zhang Jihui, and then flew the plane to break up the large formation of US military aircraft that came to rescue the captain of the US military. The cooperation between Zhang Jihui and Shan Zhiyu, the long plane and the wingman, reached a perfect level. Zhang Jihui accelerated his flight to the enemy's long plane, fired three guns at a distance of 600 meters, and shot down the enemy's long plane. Another US military plane saw the long plane shot down and fled in a panic. Zhang Jihui seized the opportunity and, with the cooperation of Shan Zhiyu, shot down the second US military plane, and the pilot of the second US military plane shot down by the volunteer air force was Davis.
in less than two minutes, Zhang Jihui, with the cooperation of Shan Zhiyu, shot down two US military F86s one after another, which shows the proficiency of the air combat tactics of the volunteers.
third, volunteer air force pilots are officers who have joined the army, and they have the spirit of not being afraid of sacrifice and daring to fight close combat with the enemy.
in the Korean air battle, volunteer pilots fly planes and engage in a head-on air battle with the US military. Some volunteer pilots even drove MIG 15 into a US military plane and died together with the enemy. This spirit of "bayonet in the air" has become another important reason why the volunteer air force defeated the United States Air Force.