Katyusha rocket launcher became a symbol of Soviet Red Army artillery and a symbol of victory.
"just as the pear blossoms all over the world, there is a soft gauze floating on the river. Katyusha stood on the handsome shore, singing like a bright spring. "
so, what kind of weapon is the Katyusha rocket, and how does the Katyusha rocket help volunteer artillery outfire the US military?
what is a Katyusha rocket launcher?
Katyusha Rockets and Volunteer Artillery
during the War to resist US aggression and Aid Korea from 1950 to 1953
in 1950, the people's Liberation Army began to regularize. In the winter of the same year, an elite infantry division of the fourth Field Army, which had just completed the task of suppressing bandits, went northward from the south to receive 120 Katyusha rocket artillery vehicles imported from the Soviet Union, which was adapted into the 21st Rocket Artillery Division. The whole division has 5 artillery regiments, each with 24 rockets.
while the 21st Rocket Artillery Division was refitted in China, the volunteers fought a bloody battle on the Korean front to protect the country. In the first, second, and third campaigns, the volunteers encountered a thorny problem: the artillery was too weak. However, due to the period from the first campaign to the third campaign, the volunteers were in the stage of mobile warfare, and there were few opportunities to fight tough battles with the United States, so the problem of weak firepower of volunteer artillery was not fully exposed.
after the fourth campaign, the weak firepower of volunteer artillery has been fully exposed. After the end of the counterattack in Hengcheng, the volunteers attacked the fortified stronghold of the United Nations garrison, Kui Pingali. The 23rd Regiment of the 2nd Division, the French Battalion, a howitzer battalion, and a tank company are stationed in Dipingli, with a total strength of more than 6000. The US military has deployed circular defense positions in Dipping and set up defense key positions that can support each other. The whole position is easy to defend and difficult to attack. The volunteers began to attack Mi Pingli on February 13, 1951, and the battle ended in defeat.
the result of the battle is somewhat regrettable, and there are many reasons, but the lack of artillery firepower is one of the very important reasons. During the War to resist US aggression and Aid Korea, a US military division had more than 950 artillery, including 72 howitzers and 120 direct guns of various kinds. The US military has 6049 artillery in seven divisions and the headquarters of the 8th Army in the DPRK, including 568 howitzers.
the volunteers have just entered the DPRK and entered the war, with more than 3000 artillery. A volunteer army has 520 artillery, of which there are only medium and small caliber mountain artillery, wild artillery, grenade launchers, and mortars, of which 190 are artillery with a caliber of more than 70mm. The 50th and 66th armies are equipped with even less artillery.
in terms of the number of artillery, there is 520 artillery in one volunteer army and more than 950 artillery in one US military division, and the number of artillery in one volunteer army is not as good as that in one US military division.
in terms of artillery quality, the front-line units of the volunteers-- all infantry units do not yet have howitzers such as large-caliber howitzers, while the US military division alone has 72 howitzers.
the lack of artillery firepower of the volunteers led to the situation that our army was unable to capture the enemy's strong defensive position in the Battle of Dipingli, to rapidly increase the firepower of the volunteers. Since the spring of 1951, China has imported artillery on a large scale from the Soviet Union and set up 17 ground artillery divisions, 8 anti-aircraft artillery divisions, and other artillery units. After establishment, each artillery unit went to the Korean front to participate in actual combat after training. the volunteers are not only equipped with 1938 122mm howitzers imported from the Soviet Union, ISU122 self-propelled artillery, but also Katyusha rockets from the 21st Artillery Division.
since a rocket launcher is worth 6 taels of gold, General Peng personally ordered "I approve where your rocket launchers are equipped and where to fight. Six taels of gold for one shell is very expensive, well protected, and used."
on September 1, 1951, the 203rd Artillery Regiment was assigned to a regiment of the 27th Army, which counterattacked the US military in the Dongli area.
after the battle order was issued, the 203rd Artillery Regiment urgently locked on operational targets and fired more than 380 rockets at US military positions.
the volunteers launched a general offensive on the US military position under the cover of rocket artillery fire. When the volunteers rushed to the US military position, they were stunned by the sight-- the US military corpses were strewn all over the ground, and there was a strong smell of smoke, just like a fire burning. Under the bombardment of rocket launchers and the efforts of our officers and men, more than 700 US troops were wiped out.
after a small test of the 203rd Artillery Regiment, the 202nd Artillery Regiment joined the 67th Army and wiped out more than 500 US troops
after the Shangganling campaign began in 1952, Katyusha rockets once again fought side by side with the volunteers. Since the volunteers did not have air supremacy, they relied on ground firepower to seize the battle initiative. On October 19, 1952, the Katyusha rockets of the 209th Volunteer Artillery Regiment coordinated with the 15th Army to launch large-scale shelling on the US military. By the time the US military recovered, the 209th Artillery Regiment had moved its position. Since then, Katyusha rockets have shelled United Nations forces many times, causing heavy damage to United Nations forces on the Shangganling front.
before the armistice of the Korean War, volunteers launched the Jincheng campaign to punish the authorities in Li Seung-Man, South Korea.
in 1953, the volunteers launched more than 1100 artillery guns in the Jincheng campaign, firing 1900 tons of artillery shells in more than 20 minutes. Katyusha rockets fired at the enemy more than 60 times, leaving the Korean army powerless to fight back. The Battle of Jincheng went down in history as the only battle in which the volunteer artillery exceeded that of the enemy.
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first, Katyusha rockets are vehicle-mounted self-propelled rockets with great power and fierce firepower. A rocket vehicle can fire 16 rockets at a time, killing the enemy's effective forces in a large area.
throughout the War to resist US aggression and Aid Korea, the volunteers successively had two Katyusha rocket artillery divisions, with a total of 240 Katyusha rocket launchers participating in combat operations. Although the US military has an advantage over the volunteers in terms of artillery numbers, it does not have rocket artillery weapons similar to Katyusha rockets. This made the US ground troops unable to cope with the "indiscriminate bombardment" of Katyusha rockets, and the participation of Katyusha rockets gave volunteer artillery an overwhelming "rocket firepower advantage" over the US military. On the other hand, the US military will not be able to make up for its disadvantage in the field of rockets in a short period.
second, Katyusha rockets are mobile rockets, which can be transferred quickly after firing shells. The US military cannot track the exact location of the volunteer Katyusha rocket regiment in real-time. not to mention the Katyusha rocket that blew up the volunteers in a large area.
third, compared with combat effectiveness, a Katyusha rocket launcher can fire 16 rockets at a time, while US military howitzers can only fire one shell at a time. the effect of one Katyusha rocket launcher is equivalent to that of 16 US howitzers.
therefore, the participation of Katyusha rocket launchers has made volunteer artillery more powerful than US artillery on local battlefields and helped volunteers seize battlefield initiative in the Shangganling campaign and Jincheng campaign
generally speaking, Katyusha rockets make volunteer artillery firepower surpass that of the US military in the following aspects: