In the middle of the Tang Dynasty, the land annexation intensified, which had a great impact on the government army system based on the land equalization system. The land equalization system is the product of a compromise between the rich and the poor.
as the saying goes, "the emperor is not short of hungry soldiers." Behind the simple language, it reveals the great relationship between the army and the economy. According to common sense, the stronger the economy, the stronger the army. In the same kind of conscription system, the comprehensive strength of the Western Wei Dynasty was less than that of the Western Wei Dynasty, which cultivated a quite effective army, while the Tang Dynasty, which experienced the prosperity of the Kaiyuan Dynasty, was faced with the dilemma of having no soldiers to use. The emergence of this strange phenomenon contains sharp social contradictions at that time.
the Northern Wei Dynasty, founded by the Xianbei people, implemented the policy of ethnic discrimination against Xianbei soldiers and Han Chinese. After the uprising of the six towns, the Northern Wei Dynasty was divided into the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Western Wei Dynasty. At the beginning of the confrontation between the two sides, the Western Wei Dynasty was at a disadvantage in terms of economy, military, and population. Yu Wentai, a big shot of the Western Wei Dynasty, urgently needs to consolidate his territory to strengthen his power.
compared with the Eastern Wei Dynasty, Yu Wentai should not only avoid the risk of Xianbei Sinicization but also prevent the minefield of Xianbei Huhu. Yu Wentai adopted the method of the combination of Hu and Han, established a famous government military system, properly solved the contradiction between the army and the economy, and had a far-reaching impact on the history of the Sui and Tang dynasties.
in the eighth year of unification (542 AD), Yu Wentai gathered soldiers from six towns and Xianbei people to form the sixth Army. the following year, when the Western Wei Dynasty suffered the defeat of Luoshan, Yu Wentai compiled Guanzhong Haoqiang's township army songs and appointed Haoqiang as the township commander. In the sixteenth year of great unification (AD 550), Yu Wentai established a military system dominated by the eight pillars, the twelve generals, and the 24 Kaifu. Not only that, but Yu Wentai also implemented the surname system, changing all the Fu Bing to the surnames of their respective commanders.
after integration, the Western Wei Dynasty had a Hu-Han army with the color of the tribal military system.
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in the ninth year of Taihe (485 AD), the Northern Wei Dynasty implemented the "land sharing system" based on the "population-based land grant system". Its essence was to distribute land according to population, the beneficiaries paid rent and taxes to the state, and to undertake a certain amount of military service and corvee, to stabilize the political power and promote agricultural production. Based on the land equalization system, Yu Wentai launched the government army system at the right time.
according to the introduction of the Biography of the Hou Family, "the initial purchase of government soldiers are all above six households, and if they have three families, they will choose one person to avoid the mediocre style of rent, and the county guard will be on trial." Soldiers rely on clothing, oxen, donkeys, and embarrassing grain, and the six families store them together, raising and disciplining them, just like their children. " At that time, the government divided the peasants into nine grades according to the situation of the rich and the poor. Among the peasants of the sixth class or above, one of them was exempted from taxes, and they brought their ordnance, such as horses, weapons, food, and clothing, and the local military government was responsible for training and dispatching.
the military system of the government made great progress in the Sui Dynasty. "soldiers know that they belong to prefectures and counties, and the accounts of land reclamation are the same as those of the people." This means that the government military system which combines the army with the people has taken shape. In their spare time, the government soldiers are engaged in farming, which is no different from that of farmers. During the war, the court assigned generals and commanders to enlist government soldiers to participate in the war. After the battle, the general was dismissed and returned to the court, and the soldiers of the army returned to their respective houses. This measure can not only put an end to the disadvantages of the exclusive military power of generals, but also actively develop agricultural production, realize the integration of army and agriculture, and effectively solve the problem of economic constraints on the military.
the early Tang Dynasty was the peak of the development of the military system of the government. In the 10th year of Zhenguan (AD 636), Tang Taizong Li Shimin further straightened out the organization of the army, changed its name to Chong Fu, set up military posts such as Guochong Duwei, left and right Guoyi Duwei, and other generals, and stipulated that they should be selected every three years to make up for the shortfall.
the Chunchong House is divided into three classes: 1200 in the upper class, a thousand in the middle, and eight hundred in the lower class. There are a total of 634 folding houses in the country, of which 261 are in the customs, accounting for 1/3 of the total, reflecting the political intention of "living in the most important and controlling the light, raising the masses in the customs to face the four directions".
Li Shimin led the government troops to establish illustrious military meritorious service. He said proudly: "We have a thousand soldiers, but we can hit the Hu and ride tens of thousands."
above, Tang Taizong Li Shimin (January 28, 598-July 10, 649), Longxi Chengji (now Qinan County, Gansu Province)
Land annexation has harmed people
in the middle of the Tang Dynasty, the land annexation intensified, which had a great impact on the government army system based on the equal land system. The land equalization system is the product of a compromise between the rich and the poor. In the actual grant of land, some farmers do not or fully get the land. The farmers who get the land have a weak ability to resist disasters and change, which lays the groundwork for land annexation.
since ancient times, land annexation is not an individual case, and the Tang Dynasty is no exception. The law of the Tang Dynasty stipulated that land could be bought and sold under certain conditions, and the aristocrats and powerful men thus exploited the loopholes in the law. In addition to the "rooms of wealth and wealth, all of them occupy land outside their homes", the aristocracy made use of political privileges to encroach and seize wantonly in the name of "borrowing famine", "buying animal husbandry" and "tenancy". According to records, at that time, "Dingkou turned to death, not the old name; the transfer of mu, not the old amount; the rise and fall of the rich and the poor, not the old." With the loss of land, the flight of the population and the disparity between the rich and the poor, the social contradictions in the Tang Dynasty intensified continuously. "the law of the government soldiers has been spoiled," and the retention or abolition of the system has reached a critical moment.
in the ninth year of Kaiyuan (AD 721), Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty realized the seriousness of land annexation and ordered the inspection of farmland and households. By the 22nd year of Kaiyuan (AD 734), more than 800,000 fleeing farmers and more than 800,000 mu of illegal land had been found. The following year, the imperial court stipulated that farmers' land distribution and Yongye land should not be sold and pasted. Since then, the court once again stressed that the distribution of land and Yongye land should not be transferred, and at the same time restricted the merger of "borrowing wasteland", "animal husbandry", "tenancy" and so on.
the policy issued by Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty is the last chance to save the land equalization system. However, in the measures to curb land annexation, the imperial court was not strong enough and achieved little effect. The aristocracy went its way, expanded crazily, and the contradiction was prominent. The government military system, based on the equal land system, lost its basis for survival and eventually became a tasteless and abandoned "chicken rib".
the government military system itself there are some shortcomings. Due to the continuous fighting, the government soldiers changed from rotating service to the forcible garrison, which over the years resulted in a shortage of local labor force, affected agricultural production, led to the economic downturn in the region, and the government troops were overwhelmed. On the other hand, the Tang army took fire as the basic unit, and ten men caught fire at a time. in addition to raising their daily armaments, they also had to take care of the "six-pack horses" responsible for transportation, which made the burden on the peasants even heavier.
in addition, the Tang army fought against Qidan, Uighur, Turkic, Tubo, and other forces for a long time, and the army "fought more generations than before," and the casualties increased significantly, making it difficult to sustain the replenishment of the army. The aristocratic bureaucrats sent government soldiers arbitrarily, which lowered their status and formed the idea that they were ashamed to be government soldiers in society. The well-off tenants also colluded with bureaucrats to find ways to evade military service. For many reasons, the "guards are slightly lost", which overcomes the shortage of government troops and replenishes the difficulties, and the government military system exists in name only.
the Tang Dynasty also took corresponding measures to ease the pressure of conscription. In the first year of long live Tongtian (AD 696), Wu Zetian announced the recruitment of United soldiers aimed at wealthy Qiangding, who were exempted from levy, could learn bows and arrows by themselves and were assessed regularly every year. At the beginning of Emperor Xuanzong's accession to the throne, due to the serious shortage of the mansion, it was difficult to complete the military affairs of requisition and defense, and the frontier military towns began to recruit adult men who volunteered to join the army. As a result, the far-reaching recruitment system began to sprout.
in the 25th year of Kaiyuan (AD 737), Xuanzong ordered the town envoys to set the recruitment quota according to the needs of defense and recruit soldiers who volunteered to guard the border. In the following year, the court decided not to recruit government troops from the mainland to guard the border, and all the original non-long March soldiers were returned, which fundamentally announced the end of the function of the government military system. In the eighth year of Tianbao (AD 749), because "there were no soldiers to hand over to the mansion", Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty ordered the recruitment system to replace the government military system.
through the historical inflection point of the government military system, bold innovation, of great significance, its brilliant arc is very long, but it always bends to the bowstring.