Talking about the change of hook color: what was the "hook test" that frightened officials in the Yuan Dynasty?

Talking about the change of hook color: what was the "hook test" that frightened officials in the Yuan Dynasty?
The officialdom of feudal society is full of open guns and hidden arrows.

the officialdom of feudal society is full of open guns and hidden arrows. The eunuch sea undercurrent surges, the wind, and clouds are changeable, slightly careless, light punishment salary picks the official to go to the king, heavy than full door copy chopping, the plant connects nine tribes. The Yuan Dynasty was a special period in the feudal society of our country. The political circles of the Yuan Dynasty had a consistent style of feudal officialdom, and the open and secret fights emerged one after another, and also had their characteristics, and the so-called "hook examination" was one of them. In the Yuan Dynasty, especially in the officialdom of the early Yuan Dynasty, "Goukao" was a deadly word. It can be said that Mongolian and Han officials are "afraid of hooks like tigers, and everyone talks about the change of hooks."

the so-called hook examiner is also called accounting, which means the so-called audit system. According to the results of the hook examination, officials can be held accountable and punished immediately, which is of the nature of discipline inspection. Audit inspections have been carried out in China since ancient times, and the so-called "upper plan", "grand plan", "recovery" and "exploration" are also. However, the hook examination and calculation of the Yuan Dynasty, combined with the "Huerza" (special court) system learned by Mongolia from Persia, has distinct characteristics of the times, reflecting the complicated struggle of political lines behind it, and its scale and cruelty are unprecedented. so that during the hook test, "the state and county set up prisons, arrested people, whipped day and night, and the mechanical system belonged to the Tao.

the origin of Arendal's hook test itself has a complex political background. At that time, Yuan Xianzong Mengge, as Mongol Khan, sat in Mobei and Lin, as the master of most of Eurasia, and led the overall situation of the great Mongol Empire. He appointed his brother Kublai Khan, later Yuan Shizu, to lead the affairs of the Southern Han Dynasty and to fight against the Southern Song Dynasty.

Kublai Khan used Han Chinese to rule the Han areas of the Central Plains well, surrounded by Dou Mo, Yao Shu, Liu Bingzhong, Hao Jing, and other Han ministers, and used Han law to govern Han land and restore the Central Plains economy looted by war. In addition, Kublai Khan also made great military achievements in the military. In the autumn of the fourth year of Xianzong (1254), Kublai Khan's army went south to destroy the Dali Kingdom. Yunnan was incorporated into the territory of the Mongol Empire.

as the saying goes, "the wood is better than the forest, the wind will destroy it." what Kublai Khan did was very resentful. First of all, his promotion of Chinese law violated the interests of the Mongolian aristocracy. He is quite dissatisfied with his "being in the heart of the earth". He reported Kublai Khan to Mengge, saying that "the power of the ministers of the royal family is a patent matter." Mongo Khan was an arbitrary man, and he was also worried that Kublai Khan's prestige was too high and threatened him to his position. So he arranged a hook test for Kublai Khan.

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this hook test was presided over by Prime Minister Calendar and Liu Taiping, the minister of government, and set up a "hook examination bureau" (equivalent to an inspection group). The subjects of the hook test were the Shaanxi Xuanfu Department, Congyi Department, and Henan Economic Division, which were in charge of Kublai Khan. The check of Kublai Khan's palace intercepted the money and grain taxes collected without authorization and forced them to return them immediately. Mongo Khan also granted the hook examination bureau the right to act cheaply, and if he found any violation of discipline and law, he could immediately deal with it and punish him.

this hook test is quite stringent, and the law enforcement is also very strict. "the abuse of fire fumes the sky, forcing many people to die." Kublai Khan's big-mean crony officials, Lian Xixian and Zhao Liangbi were all detained by the "double rules" of the examination Bureau, and many people were tortured and died in prison. To avoid disaster, Kublai Khan, following the advice of the counselor Yao Shu, surrendered his power and went to Mobei to apologize to Menge.

the biggest examination when Kublai Khan was in power was until the 25th year of Yuan (1288), which was presided over by Sang GE, the left prime minister of Shangshu province. The subjects of the hook test are officials of Zhoufulu County in Jianghuai, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Gansu, Shaanxi and Huguang provinces. With great fanfare, "it is convenient for counties and counties". The purpose of the hook test is to "deal with defeat and re-deceive." according to Sang GE, "there must be many frauds in other provinces," that is, to check and pay taxes that have not been collected by local governments over the years, as well as the embezzlement of inspection officials when collecting taxes.

the hook examination bureau asked the government to make up the payment, and the government forced the people to extort money, so "the people went to the Takeda house, married their wives and daughters, or went to the water to kill themselves; they were not responsible for the death and blamed relatives and neighbors." The accountability of officials is also so severe that some officials are forced to admit embezzlement for the sake of performance. The manager of a certain road was forced to sell his old maidservant and gave the money to the hook examination bureau that it was stolen money. In the end, the "stolen money" was canceled.

Why are the rulers of the Yuan Dynasty keen on hook tests?