In the offensive and defensive battle of the mountain fortress, why can't the Japanese defend Songshan, but the volunteers can defend Shangganling?

In the offensive and defensive battle of the mountain fortress, why can't the Japanese defend Songshan, but the volunteers can defend Shangganling?
Songshan Battle and Shangganling Battle are two famous mountain fortresses in the world.

the Songshan Battle and the Shangganling Battle, as two world-famous mountain fortresses, have not only been included in the teaching materials of the American military Academy at West Point but also become the objects of constant study by all kinds of strategists and historians for decades. In these two battles, one is that the Chinese Expeditionary Force has gone through hardships and conquered the fortified city barrier that the Japanese are proud of, and the other is that the Chinese people's volunteers face the dominant "United Nations" (hereinafter referred to as the coalition forces). The tenacious struggle finally made the other side come back without success. The former is regarded as "the model of mountain warfare attack" by the military circles of various countries, while the latter is called "the standard of mountain warfare defense" by military historians.

campaign purpose: one is "fighting", one is "dragging"


support firepower: volunteers beat the Japanese

in addition, an artillery barrage is used to prevent coalition forces from expanding their operations after occupying surface positions and to wait for an opportunity to cover the enemy's deep artillery positions and weaken the enemy's ground artillery strength. All the volunteer tunnel garrison units are equipped with special radio stations to liaise with the artillery, and the artillery also set up observation posts in the surrounding highlands, with close coordination between steps and artillery, demonstrating extremely high tactical literacy. The coalition admitted that 62% of its battle casualties were caused by volunteer artillery. Throughout the Battle of Shangganling, the volunteers consumed a total of 410000 shells of various types (including mortar shells), which was almost unthinkable during the Civil War. Strong artillery support is another magic weapon for the volunteers to win in addition to tunnel fortifications.

on the Songshan battlefield, the Japanese only put in eight 105mm howitzers, 12 mountain cannons and infantry guns, two rapid-fire guns (anti-tank guns), and two mortars, which not only lagged far behind the attacking Chinese Expeditionary Force, but also had no guarantee in quantity, and could only be used occasionally at a critical stage. Even if it was launched, it was quickly suppressed by the air and artillery fire of the expeditionary force, which did not play its due role at all.

will to fight: effective political work trumps Bushido spirit

in the Songshan and Shangganling battles, both the Japanese army and the volunteers, as a defensive side, were faced with the plight of lack of water, food, and medicine. Under the extremely cruel battlefield situation, how maintaining the exuberant fighting will of officers and soldiers is a major test for military commanders at all levels.

look at the Japanese army, although its proud spirit of "Bushido" can maintain the morale of the troops at the very beginning. However, over a long period, especially when food and ammunition were running out and foreign aid was cut off, the will of the Japanese army to fight was greatly shaken, and some soldiers asked what was the significance of the total annihilation of the commander. Why did the superiors sacrifice us? At the end of the campaign, there were even some small Japanese units fleeing into an organizational system. This is in sharp contrast to the high morale of the volunteers who continue to deliver supplies to tunnel troops and evacuate the wounded even though they are well aware of being blocked by strong enemy fire. This shows that the effective political work of our army is unmatched by the spirit of Bushido.

in the Battle of Songshan, the strength of the Expeditionary Force is no more than that of the coalition forces in the Shangganling campaign. For the coalition's 1thumb 4, the air power is only 1x60. Even so, the Expeditionary Force captured Songshan, which is bigger than Shangganling, with fewer casualties than the coalition forces.

our volunteers stood firm under the enemy's absolute strength and firepower, smashed the coalition's offensive attempt, stabilized the front line along the 38th Front, and directly accelerated the process of signing the Korean Armistice Agreement. Therefore, we can proudly say that the offensive of the Expeditionary Force is better than that of the coalition forces (mainly the United States), and the defense of the volunteers is better than that of the Japanese. As sons and daughters of China, we should be proud of this!

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