If you fall behind, you will be beaten. From the late Qing Dynasty to the founding of New China, we were humiliated by many treaties.
if you lag, you will be beaten. From the late Qing Dynasty to the founding of New China, we were humiliated by many treaties.
1842, Nanjing Treaty.
1843, Humen Treaty.
1844, Wangxia Treaty.
1858, Treaty of Peace.
A hundred years of experience, during which I was humiliated, unable to count in detail, the treaty was no more than ten thousand words, and then how many people's fat and ointment, the family broke up and died, and I couldn't bear to think of it.
but soon, the Qing government once again learned the advantages of foreigners, so the Qing government realized that it was impossible not to abide by the treaty. So the Qing government began to seriously implement the provisions of the treaty and asked the Western powers to abide by it as well. At this time, the Qing government regarded the treaty as a tool to bind the western powers and carried out the treaty in good faith in exchange for endless demands. The Qing government even used various measures to urge local officials to implement the treaty.
but on the one hand, the desires of the great powers were difficult to fill, on the other hand, the reformers in the Qing government and other people gradually deepened their understanding of the peace treaty. As a result, the Qing government gradually tended to "amend the treaty".
We have always thought that the treaties signed by the Qing government were unequal treaties that humiliated countries and humiliated countries, but at that time the Qing government did not understand the rights it granted. On the contrary, it even thought that foreigners were easy to get along with. Under such circumstances, the "letter of contract" policy mentioned earlier came into being.
but progressive officials such as reformers within the Qing government gradually realized what rights the Qing government had ceded in the treaty. In particular, the understanding of consular jurisdiction, tariff agreement, one-sided MFN treatment, and so on. This group of officials began to demand that the treaty be amended and that the reform be self-strengthening.
to some extent, these officials are still very sober, knowing that amending the treaty requires corresponding strength, but they do not know that it is impossible for the Qing government, which has accumulated for a long time, to solve the problem.
under the circumstances of the great disparity in strength between China and foreign countries, the efforts of the Qing government did not achieve much success.
II. Early mass movements: Boxer and recovery of Rights
"Patriotic is patriotic!" The people should wake up today, and don't wait for the soil to split like a melon. "
this is a poem titled next to the current situation chart. In fact, not only did the Qing government regard itself as "the Kingdom of Heaven", but the people of the Qing Dynasty also had their simple pride, the arrogance of foreigners, and the inferiority of officials all strongly pierced their anger.
"hates the peace treaty most, causing calamity to the country and the people." If it goes up and down, the grievances of the people will not be brought forward. This is a popular folk song within the Boxer. The slogan of the Boxer's uprising is "help clear and destroy foreign countries." Although this movement failed, it prevented the possibility of the great powers carving up China quickly, and to a certain extent showed the awakening of Chinese national consciousness.
the Boxer Movement is said to have perished under the siege of the allied forces of the eight powers, but in fact but it was stabbed by the Qing government after it was destroyed.
after the Boxer Movement, there was a large-scale mass movement, that is, the movement to recover profits. Germany and Britain plundered the mining rights of Shandong Road without a bottom line, which aroused the fierce anger of the men in Shandong. The gentry and people in Shandong rose and used various means of relation to demand the recovery of the mining rights of Shandong Road. Although the achievements were limited, they dealt a blow to the aggressive arrogance of Germany.
and many people saw the weakness of the government in this movement and turned to the revolution, and many people played a great role in the Revolution of 1911.
around, entering the Revolution of 1911. The initial sound of revising and abolishing the treaty took place during the period of the Beiyang government. In 1913, the Beiyang government established the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Treaty Research Society. In 1915, when a treaty was negotiated with Cuba, diplomats at that time demanded equality in everything, preferring to negotiate without achievement rather than sign unequal treaties. At this time, although China's diplomacy was still burdened with a large number of unequal treaties, it finally staggered up from kneeling on the ground to talk about diplomacy.
in 1915, the China-Chile good Treaty signed by the Beiyang government was the first equality treaty signed in history.
is followed by the beginning of the renewal. At the end of World War I, the Beiyang government, as a victorious country, strongly demanded that the previous unequal treaties be revised. For China to stand in the position of the allies, the allies also promised to improve China's international status after the war.
to this end, the Beiyang government, represented by Gu Weijun, attended the Paris Peace Conference.
but the outcome is well known, and even if Gu Weijun's impassioned speech leaves the great powers speechless, they are not willing to let go of their mouths biting fat. Even worse, Gu Weijun was furious and refused to sign at the Paris peace conference.
the news spread back to China, the crowd was excited, the vigorous May 4th Movement was staged in this way, and slogans such as "return me Qingdao" and "abolish other unequal treaties" were put forward.
after the establishment of the National Government in 1925, the National Government put forward a slogan to abolish unequal treaties and oppose imperialism. It was widely recognized by the people, and the Kuomintang and the Communist Party joined hands in the Northern Expedition. At that time, the masses thought that "the Northern warlord government was extremely unworthy, but only the southern revolutionary government could share the hardships and dangers with the people." the abrogation movement sprang up in an all-around way. China's diplomatic history has opened a new chapter again.
4. The abrogation movement entered the most exciting part
after the Northern Expedition, the Chinese government took the opportunity to achieve a certain degree of success.
1. Take back Hankou, Jiujiang, Zhenjiang, Xiamen, the four British concessions, and the Belgian concession in Tianjin.
2. Through the signing of the New Testament of tariffs, it regained tariff autonomy and indicated the tendency to abolish consular jurisdiction.
3. In 1928, he signed a new treaty with the five countries of Italy, Denmark, Portugal, and the West, abolishing consular jurisdiction.
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then entered the Anti-Japanese War period, when China, as an important anti-fascist force, its international status was enhanced.
in 1941, US Secretary of State Hull declared that he would discuss the abolition of unequal treaties after the war, and Britain did the same later.
in 1942, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs formally made representations to the US government about abrogating the treaty. The US side responded that it was willing to give up the unequal treaty, and the British government also made the same statement. WasteThe Yue Movement quickly made a breakthrough in just a few days.
as for Italy and Japan, the treaties previously signed were annulled after the outbreak of the War of Resistance against Japan and the Pacific War.
what kind of hardship our nation has experienced to break free from these chains is a memory that we cannot forget.
some people already disapprove of this and even scoff at the abrogation movement, saying that it is an act that lacks modern treaty awareness.
also, remember that forgetting history is betrayal.