The Netherlands bucked the trend and grew into a "standard capitalist country in the 17th century".
in 1581, after the independence of the Netherlands, it was faced with the plight of a small number of poor people. Daniel Defoe, a famous writer, once mocked that the grain produced in the Netherlands was "not enough to feed Roosters and hens". However, the Netherlands bucked the trend and grew into a "17th-century standard capitalist country".
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at that time, the per capita GDP of the Netherlands was 1.7 times that of Britain and more than twice that of other countries in the world, and it was known as the "coachman on the sea".
compared with commerce, the Dutch fishery is equally comparable to commerce. Their fishing advantage lies in the "galleon" designed by themselves. Not only can it catch 300000 barrels of fish at a time, but sailors can also directly process and marinate the catch on deck. With the help of galleons, Dutch fishermen monopolized the fishing of herring and whales. by the second half of the 17th century, the Netherlands had 1500 fishing boats and employed as many as 12000 people, creating an overwhelming competitive advantage over Britain.advances in fisheries have led to the upgrading of other industries in the Netherlands. A large amount of whale oil obtained has promoted the development of the country's manufacturing and chemical industries. The emphasis on the chemical industry has accelerated the growth of the Dutch sugar industry, leather industry, beer brewing industry, arms industry, and other industries, and a rich and perfect industrial, peasant, and merchant system has made the image of the coachman more plump.
if the Netherlands is a carriage, then finance in 1609, the Netherlands established the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, which was the first stock exchange in the world. the liquidity, speculation, and openness of the market are the same as those of today's stock exchanges. The activity and prosperity of the credit market have led future generations to call it "the Wall Street of the 17th century".in the same year, the Netherlands established the world's first national bank Amsterdam Bank. On the one hand, it played a stabilizing role in standardizing the money market and curbing commercial speculation, on the other hand, with the reserves of various trade currencies, it promoted the expansion of Dutch precious metals trade. Within 100 years after the establishment of the Bank of Amsterdam, the reserve increased from less than 1 million florins to 16 million florins. Revolutionary and innovative financial measures have enriched the coachman's self-confidence and influence.the Netherlands in the 17th century took efficient industry and agriculture as the starting point, grasped the opportunity of foreign trade, made huge profits, transformed into advantages in the financial field, and finally determined the hegemonic position of the world economy.however, the Netherlands relies too much on trade, neglects the transformation and upgrading of industrial technology, and misses the opportunity to grow into an "industrial giant". The quintessence of "coachman on the Sea" lies in the sense of innovation and daring to act, which still attracts the world's attention.
the Netherlands bordering the North Sea aims at navigation. in the 17th century, there were about 60 shipyards on both sides of the Zan River in the Netherlands. these shipyards generally use mechanized equipment such as wind sewing machines, power feeders, pulleys, winches, heavy cranes, and so on, which improve the labor productivity of the factory and produce a ship almost every day.standardized management is implemented in shipbuilding design, hull, and other links. The government has set up a special department in Amsterdam for the research and development of navigation equipment, the manufacture of navigation instruments, and the drawing of navigation maps. The socialized shipbuilding mode reduces the cost of production and use. This model also includes three aspects:one is the sales strategy. Shipyards not only accept consumer customization but also external sales, invigorating the funds of the entire shipbuilding market.the second is to reduce costs. In the mid-17th century, Dutch-made ships were 40% to 50% cheaper than British-made ships.third, there are various types. Transport "pot-bellied ships", faster "spaceships" and fishing "galleons" and other types of ships are popular in Europe.Dutch-made ships are well-designed, sturdy in structure, advanced in craftsmanship, and have 20% fewer operators than ships in other countries, which was crucial for the Netherlands, which had a population of only 1.5 million at that time. In the golden age of Dutch development, there were 20,000 ships in the world, of which 3ax 4 belonged to the Netherlands, more than other countries combined. With the convenient means of transportation, the coachman's ambition was ignited.
by 1670, the Netherlands had three times the tonnage of ships as Britain, and as many ships as all the countries in Europe combined. Dutch merchant ships have tracks throughout the Baltic Sea, the Americas, Africa, and Asia.the Netherlands, located in Western Europe, regards the Baltic Sea as a traditional trade area. Every year, at least 800 ships are organized to conduct multilateral trade in the Baltic countries. Traded goods include grains, timber, and metals, of which grains account for 60 percent of Dutch liquidity, and Amsterdam's huge grain throughput makes Amsterdam known as the "European barn". in 1618 alone, the volume of grain trade undertaken by the Netherlands was as high as more than 200 million kilograms. Dutch trade tentacles extend northward to Moscow and southward to the Mediterranean, bringing the whole of European trade into its commercial map.in 1600, Dutch businessmen appeared in Kyushu, Japan. In 1605, Amman Island in Indonesia became the first oriental stronghold of the Dutch. Since then, Batavia (present-day Jakarta, Indonesia), Taiwan, Malacca, and Ceylon have successively become Dutch possessions. In 1622, the Dutch established New Amsterdam, the forerunner of New York, at the mouth of the Hudson River. In the first half of the 17th century, the Dutch established a foothold in Guinea, Sao Paulo de Luanda, and Sao Tome.to grab more commercial interests, the Netherlands established the West India Company and the East India Company. The former enjoyed the trade privileges from the west coast of Africa to the east coast of America, and went bankrupt in 1790 due to poor management due to interest disputes. The latter was founded in 1602 and controlled oriental trade in spices, wood, rice, and textiles. By 1669, East India had 150 merchant ships, 40 warships, 50000 employees, and 10000 private armies, and the rate of return on investment was as high as 40%. Became the most profitable company in the world at that time. The developed commercial trade makes the name of "coachman on the sea" worthy of its name.