The Nanjing National Government moved its capital twice to avoid the edge of the Japanese invaders.
from 1931 when Japanese imperialism flagrantly launched the "September 18 incident" to August 15, 1945, Japan formally announced its unconditional surrender, the Chinese people experienced 14 years of War of Resistance against Japan that was extremely arduous and brilliant, and just. During this period, the Nanjing National Government moved its capital twice to avoid the edge of the Japanese invaders and preserve its accumulated strength.
however, in 1932, the national government chose to move to Luoyang, while in 1937, the national government finally chose Chongqing as the wartime capital (accompanying capital) of the national government.so, what is the reason why the two moves of the national government's capital are different?
first of all, there are differences in the situation of Japanese aggression.
secondly, the domestic situation at that time was also different
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Luoyang was a major transportation and military town during the period of the Northern warlords of the Republic of China, with railways (Longhai Line), airports (Luoyang Airport), and military fortresses (Western Engineering Barracks). There was also the leading Gongxian arsenal at that time (the famous medium official rifle was one of its masterpieces), which was second to none at that time. In addition, Luoyang is one of the "four ancient capitals" in Chinese history, with great cultural heritage, which is also in line with the appetites of many important government officials who claim to have a deep foundation in Sinology. All these are the advantages of Luoyang at that time.however, Luoyang's "deficiency" is also quite prominent. Its status has been declining continuously since the Song Dynasty. During the period of the Republic of China, it was only an ordinary inland city, and its urban construction and economic living standards were relatively backward, which made the dignitaries of the national government who were used to living a happy life in Nanjing and could easily go to Shanghai to hang out.Lao Chiang simply regards his special train as a headquarters plus residence, while other officials of all sizes do not have such qualifications and conditions. Those with high levels can go to temples or old houses left by Wu Peifu, Zhang Jingyao, and other former Northern warlords, and those with low levels have no choice but to "bend to live" in private houses, so one or two complain bitterly. Therefore, this is also an important factor in the disappearance of the threat faced by Nanjing after the Songhu Armistice Agreement, and people have asked to move back to Nanjing. For these important government officials, it is not so much a relocation of the capital, but rather to flee the famine, it is really "unbearable to look back".while compared with Luoyang, which is a resplendent city in history, Chongqing, an important town in southwest China, is a rising star. During the period of the Republic of China, Chongqing was already quite prosperous and was known as one of the "five tigers of the Yangtze River" (the other four cities are Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, and Anqing), with developed land and water transportation, prosperous commerce and economy, and a good foundation for urban construction. from the perspective of urban economic life, it is more suitable to be the capital.and from the perspective of topography, the surrounding mountains of Chongqing can be relied on by the natural insurance of the Three Gorges, and the safety of the city is also relatively guaranteed. During the Anti-Japanese War, the Japanese army tried to attack Chongqing many times, all of which were defeated by the Chinese army relying on natural insurance defense, especially in the Shipai defense battle in 1943. The heroic and tenacious Chinese garrison relied on the Shipai fortress in Xiling Gorge of the Three Gorges and did heavy damage to the Japanese army, thus smashing the attempt of the Japanese army to attack Chongqing. These advantages of Chongqing also contributed to the fact that the national government finally chose it as the wartime capital.