The Xin Chou Treaty is the most humiliating treaty in modern Chinese history. It not only has a huge amount of reparations, but also has 450 million taels of silver on its books, plus a total interest of 1 billion taels of silver to the great powers.
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The Xin Chou Treaty is the most humiliating in modern Chinese history. It not only has a huge amount of reparations, but also has 450 million taels of silver on its books, plus a total interest of 1 billion taels of silver to the great powers.
And there are many additional provisions, one of which is to punish the culprit.
The so-called culprits refer to those who showed "prominence" in the Boxer incident and shouted at foreigners to kill them more fiercely.
There are a total of 174 civil and military ministers, of course, there should be another person on this list-Empress Dowager Cixi.
On June 20, 1900, German Minister Klingde went from Dongjiaomin Lane to the then Prime Minister Yamen to negotiate the evacuation.
As a result, he was killed on the spot when he met the Tiger God Camp, which was commanded by Wang Ziyi in Duanxun County.
This incident gave the allied forces of the eight powers an excellent excuse to attack the Qing court on a large scale.
However, three days before this, the coalition forces had already declared war on China by taking advantage of the problems that were broken out by the boxers.
And without blood, he took Dagu Fort.
Only a day later, the Qing court issued internal documents playfully, declaring war on the great powers.
The performance of the Qing court can be called a loser to the extreme, first defeated in Balitai, Tianjin, and then back, although the coalition forces are full of internal contradictions, the Empress Dowager Cixi saw the collapse of her superstitious boxers at this time, it was obviously in disarray.
On August 15, 1900, she entered Beijing in a panic.
On August 16, the allied forces of the eight powers invaded Beijing.
At this time, not only the Qing court, but the whole of China was already in jeopardy.
To make peace with the coalition forces, Cixi, who went to Xi'an, had to throw it out, and Li Hongzhang, who was already in his twilight years, went to Beijing to clean up the mess.
The situation that Li Hongzhang saw when he arrived in Beijing was indeed miserable.
The whole of Beijing has been carved up by the great powers, and the conditions for peace proposed by the other side are also very clear: first punish the culprit, and then talk about peace.
The so-called culprit of punishment is a super-large list issued by the great powers, including several important officials, including Dong Fuxiang, who had military power at that time, and Yuxian, a hero who was chased by foreigners by the governor of Shanxi.
Xu Tong and Gangyi on the list are both among the top figures in the previous cabinet, while Zai Yi is the father of the "eldest brother" Puyi, who will inherit the throne of Guang Xu.
It can be said that it dealt a great blow to the Qing court.
In addition, according to the German proposal, the "primary and real mastermind" must be severely punished, but this decision was collectively opposed by a series of important officials in the southeast, such as Li Hongzhang and Zhang Zhidong.
When Cixi first saw the list, her anger could be imagined.
Of course, anger is of no use. Foreigners now occupy the city of Beijing and have absolute initiative.
Cixi will have to face this problem if she wants to go back.
Cixi knew that Li Hongzhang, Zhang Zhidong, Yuan Shikai, and others also hated these Manchurian ministers. They took all the benefits in the coup of 1898 and excluded all the Han courtiers from other provinces, and now is a good time to eradicate them in one fell swoop.
Therefore, Li Hongzhang and others unprecedentedly United Empress Dowager Cixi. At this time, Empress Dowager Cixi decided to dismiss the first, and then after the foreigners' attention was diverted, they were reinstated, to turn a big matter into a trivial matter.
However, Cixi underestimated the foreigners' understanding of the politics of the Qing Dynasty. "it is common for a Qing official to be reinstated or promoted soon after dismissal."
So Cixi's first-hand plan failed.
After the failure of Cixi's first disposal, foreigners proposed that Dong Fuxiang and Yuxian must be added to the list. Yuxian joined them mainly because Yuxian was the most key figure in encouraging Boxer to enter Beijing from Shandong.
Dong Fuxiang caused a lot of casualties to the coalition forces.
The two men hated the coalition.
However, Dong Fuxiang's reputation in the Shaanxi-Gansu region was so high that Cixi dared not deal with him at all, so in the end, he was not executed.
For most of the culprits, the demand of the coalition forces is one word: kill.
However, Cixi has always placed high hopes on Ziyi, not to mention killing him, that is, withdrawing him has already dealt a great blow to Cixi.
Therefore, during the negotiations, Li Hongzhang specifically put forward a reason to negotiate with the coalition forces: "Yi's relatives will not increase their sentence," claiming that "if he is executed, it will have tragic consequences for the royal family."
Therefore, the coalition forces specifically allow the death penalty to be changed into exile.
Since then, however, foreigners have indicated that they will never take a step back.
On February 8, 1901, the great powers sent a note to the Qing government, saying that although Xu Tong had passed away, his son Xu Chengyu was still alive and that he and Zhao Shuqiao, Yuxian, and Qixiu should all be punished as the culprits. They must carry out the death penalty and each Congress sent envoys to supervise the death penalty.
Cixi was furious and thought that this was a deliberate dilemma for herself. She telephoned Li Hongzhang to ask for negotiation.
However, all countries said that they would not take a step back. Conger, the US envoy, said: "these are all methods commonly used by the Chinese people, and we all agree that we must resolutely resist them.
The Qing government must have a way to carry out the punishment (death penalty) we asked for. "
The country was weak, surrounded by tigers and wolves, and the alliance under the city, so Cixi had no choice but to order the death penalty for the special objects demanded by the above-mentioned powers.
However, to reflect the special pension of the imperial court, they were given to kill themselves and left a whole body.
The envoys of various countries said that this was acceptable, and it was fine to kill any kind of death.
In addition to these central officials, the great powers also made a list of 142 local officials. As the "first evil" has been punished, the powers are lenient to these local officials.
Among them, 3 were sentenced to death, 11 were sentenced to death, 8 were exiled for life, 33 were never dismissed, and the rest were given lighter punishments such as dismissal, dismissal, reprimand, dismissal, and retention.
At this time, the Qing government had been completely reduced to the "earth-guarding official" of foreigners.
This dispute thoroughly exposed the last fig leaf of the Qing court, the end of the Qing court was approaching, the conservative school was destroyed, and the reform forces of the Qing court completely occupied the upper hand. It can be said that the wheel of the times began to roll forward irreversibly.