but why do so many people want to grab the seal in ancient times?

but why do so many people want to grab the seal in ancient times?
Since ancient times, the official seal occupies an important position in the ancient society, in which the imperial seal is particularly precious, which has staged scenes of human tragicomedy in history.

on April 26, 2020, Francis Chan, founder of Dangdang, led four strong men to snatch official seals at Dangdang headquarters with a resolution of the temporary shareholders' meeting, staging a contemporary version of the "door-to-door change". The official seal that triggered this bloody plot came into the public eye. since ancient times, the official seal occupies an important position in ancient society, in which the imperial seal is particularly precious, which has staged scenes of human tragicomedy in history.

the application of the official seal stems from people's attention to the establishment of the credit system. Credit is a positive record of organizations or individuals fulfilling their promises. It takes into account not only social fairness and justice but also individual self-restraint. It is an indispensable part of public morality. Confucius brilliantly pointed out: "there has been dead since ancient times, and the people cannot stand without faith." It can be seen that in the Spring and Autumn period, up to the country, down to the civilian population, the general pursuit of good credit.

with the improvement of the credit system, the "seal" with a voucher or token function arises at the historic moment. there are three earliest records related to the Seal in Zhou Li.

one of them is "where there is a bribe in currency, there is a difference in terms of price."

the second is the "Festival of bribes for goods". Zheng Xuan commented: "for those who hold festivals, today's seal is also."

the third is to "distinguish the micro (beauty) evil of its things, and its quantity, uncover the seal."

Zheng Xuan also notes: "the seal is printed." It is not only the number of books but also sealed. "

these three "festivals" and "seals" are related to "goods bribes" and "goods", indicating that the application of official seals is closely related to social and economic activities. Liu Xi, a Confucian classics scholar of the Eastern Han Dynasty, said in the interpretation of the name: "the seal can be transferred but not published." The practical function of the seal is further explained.

Zuo Zhuan, which is also a document of the Zhou Dynasty, mentions the "book" with the seal, which shows the development trend of the official seal expanding from the economic field to the political field. At that time, the appointment of officials, political exchanges, and trade activities was inseparable from the seal. At that time, the "seal", as the Eastern Han scholar Ying Yi said in the "Han official ceremony": "Xi, Shi also, believe also, the ancients shared respect and inferiority." whether it is official seal or jade seal, it is the credit certificate of organizations and individuals in social activities. Francis Chan led the public to win the official seal, it can be said that the initiative has been premeditated for a long time.

the use of official seals means the performance of duties. According to online reports, Francis Chan snatched 11 official seals and 36 financial seals from Dangdang that day, a lot of them. The ancient jade seals did not exist alone. Wei Hong, a scholar of the Eastern Han Dynasty, recorded in the Old instrument of the Han Dynasty: "the six seals of the emperor are all white jade, and they are all white jade, and the article says: the emperor carries the seal, the emperor believes the seal, the son of Heaven acts the seal, the son of Heaven believes the seal, an all the six seals." different from the Qin Dynasty, the seals of the princes of the Han Dynasty are also called "seals", such as "Huaiyang King Seal", "Hejian King Seal" and so on during the Sui Dynasty, the court added "divine seal" and "commissioned seal" based on the "six seals" of the Qin and Han dynasties. enter the Tang Dynasty, and then add the "Chuanguo Seal", a total of "Nine Seals". Their use is stipulated in the Book of the New Tang Dynasty. The Chuan Seal is for the special purpose of changing the dynasty to the next generation, the Divine Seal is "hidden but not used", Weizhen China, and the other "six Seals" are respectively "the Emperor uses the Seal to report the King's official letter, the Emperor's Seal to call the King, the Emperor's Seal to call the Prince, the Emperor's Seal to report the Siyi Book, the son of Heaven's Seal to call the Emperor Siyi, the son of Heaven to believe in the Seal to call the soldiers of Siyi."

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in the first year of Daguan of the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 1107), Emperor Hui ordered jade workers to carve eight treasures such as "Chengyu Liubao", "Town National Treasure" and "ordered Jade", and then added, "Ding Bao" to form the "Nine Seals" again. In the Ming Dynasty, there are "24 treasures", "their articles are different, and each has its use". For example, when offering sacrifices to heaven and earth, use "the treasure of the emperor", canonize and give service to "the treasure of the emperor", give orders to officials of one to five grades to use "treasure of Letters Patent", and give official edict letters of six to nine grades to use "treasure of imperial destiny" to reward officials to use "treasure of good luck".

Qing Gaozong stressed: "covering the weight of the son of Heaven to govern the universe and apply for economic performance is no more important than a national treasure." in the eleventh year of Emperor Qianlong (1746 AD), he took the meaning of "20 days and five days" in the Book of Changes and ordered the 25 Seal. Unexpectedly, the Qing Dynasty ended in the next six generations. Today, the "25 Seal" is kept in the Palace Museum, waiting for tourists to visit. Industry insiders pointed out that Francis Chan openly snatched the official seal, only a rehearsal for the dispute over the management power of Dangdang, and the real palace fighting drama is still brewing. Crazy official seals

it is not surprising that "official seals" are repeatedly robbed in historical books. The most famous protagonist of "robbing the official seal" is Wang Mang at the end of the Western Han Dynasty. At that time, the emperor Liu Ying was young, and the jade seal was kept by Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun of Xiaoyuan. Wang Mang was autocratic and intended to usurp the throne. He "sent his cousin Wang Shun to ask for it, and the Empress Dowager was angry at it, and threw the seal on the ground, breaking a corner of it. Wang Mang ordered the craftsmen to make up for it with gold. " jade seal inlaid with gold and jade, say goodbye of the Western Han Dynasty.

in the troubled times of the late Han Dynasty, the heroes rose together, and with the jade seal, they could occupy the advantage of resources in the competition. Yuan Shu is such an open-eyed man. Lexi, a scholar of the Western Jin Dynasty, revealed in the Book of official Records of Shanyang that Yuan Shu "heard that Jian's national seal was seized by the wife of Jian". To achieve his goal, he started a kidnapping, which is shameful. Later, Yuan Shu's ambition accelerated his downfall, resulting in a sad end to the destruction of fame and fortune.

coincidentally, in the second year of Jingkang in the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 1127), Jin Bing broke through Bianliang and the emperor Yudong. While capturing Emperor Hui and Qin, he also seized 27 seals, including 15 of Yubao, 7 of Jinbao, and 5 of Jintu and Yinbao. When Song Gaozong settled the capital of Lin'an, the Southern Song Dynasty only inherited the imperial seals of "the appointed treasurer of the Song Dynasty" and "Dingdingbao".

Modern scholar Zhu Jiaxiang pointed out in his book The Treasure Seal of the Emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties: "who is the treasure trove? What the son of Heaven admires is the seal, and what his subjects admire is the seal. If there is no seal, the king says that there is no way to reach the four seas, and there is no seal. In the chapter, there is a division of the text that cannot be carried out in its place, which has happened since the Qin and Han dynasties. " in a word, the jade seal is equivalent to the emperor's "identity card", which is too serious to be lost.

Francis Chan grabs the handle in an attempt to gain more voice and lead the development of the situation through "shock therapy." As the saying goes, it is easy to seize the chapter, difficult to seize power, and on the day of the incident, Dangdang immediately counterattacked and announced that the official seal was out of control. During the period when anyone used the relevant official seal to sign a document with legal effect, the company refused to recognize it and was robbed of the official seal. Dangdang only resolved the temporary crisis, Francis Chan will never give up, "grab the door" to be continued, eat melon and chase the drama.

the seal put a mysterious veil on the Qin Dynasty. After Qin Shihuang unified China, to strengthen the centralization of power, the official seal of the emperor was designated as the seal, and the official seal of the subjects was collectively referred to as the seal. Cai Yong, a writer of the Eastern Han Dynasty, said frankly in his "dogmatism": "the people all regard to gold and jade as seals, dragon and tiger buttons, and only to good ones. Since the Qin Dynasty, the son of Heaven has used the seal alone, and only good jade, so the officials do not dare to use it."

not only that, after Qin Shihuang determined the Central Plains, Lisi presented the jade seal of the country, engraved with the fish and bird seal "ordered by Heaven, that is, Shou Yongchang", symbolizing the initial establishment of the centralized system. After the death of Qin Shihuang, Zhao Gao and Lisi conspired to forge the Book of giving death Seal, which killed Prince Fu Su and the famous general Meng Tian, and the authority of the jade seal was proved again.